ᱚᱦᱢᱚᱫᱽ ᱥᱟᱦ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ

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ᱚᱦᱢᱚᱫᱽ ᱥᱟᱦ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱚᱦᱢᱚᱫᱽ ᱥᱟᱦ ᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱑᱗᱔᱘ ᱥᱟᱞᱮᱨᱮ ᱱᱟᱫᱤᱨᱥᱟᱦ ᱟᱜ ᱜᱩᱨ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱟᱯᱷᱜᱟᱱᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱠ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱥᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱛᱷᱟᱯᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟ.ᱭ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱑᱗᱔᱘ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱑᱗᱕᱘ ᱫᱷᱟ.ᱵᱤᱡ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱫᱷᱟᱣ ᱪᱷᱩᱴᱟ.ᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱦᱟᱢᱞᱟ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱑᱗᱕᱗ ᱥᱟᱞᱮᱨᱮ ᱯᱩᱥ (ᱡᱟᱱᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ) ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱤᱞᱞᱤ ᱨᱮᱭ ᱠᱚᱨᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱦᱢᱚᱫᱽᱥᱟᱦ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱫᱷᱟ.ᱵᱤᱡ ᱫᱤᱞᱞᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱟᱥᱟ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱠᱩᱸᱵᱽᱲᱩ ᱵᱩᱠᱲᱩ ᱟᱠᱟᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱸᱰᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱩᱸᱵᱽᱲᱩ ᱰᱟᱠᱟᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱠᱚᱨᱚᱰ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱢᱯᱚᱛᱤ ᱛᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱷᱟ.ᱞᱤ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾[᱑]

ᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱥᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱠ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ :- ᱑᱗᱔᱗-᱑᱗᱗᱒ (᱒᱕ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱠᱟᱞ)

ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱴᱤᱠᱞᱤ :- ᱚᱠᱴᱳᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱗᱔᱗ ᱾

ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱟᱺᱜᱤᱵᱷᱟ.ᱨᱤᱭᱟ.:- ᱦᱩᱥᱮᱱ ᱦᱳᱛᱟᱠ ᱾

ᱟᱜᱟᱢ ᱟᱺᱜᱤᱵᱷᱟ.ᱨᱤᱭᱟ.:- ᱴᱟᱭᱢᱚᱨ ᱥᱟᱦ ᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱾

ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ :- ᱥᱤᱼ ᱑᱗᱒᱒, ᱦᱮᱨᱟᱛ, ᱟᱯᱷᱜᱟᱱᱤᱥᱛᱷᱟᱱ ᱾

ᱜᱩᱨ :- ᱑᱖ ᱚᱠᱴᱳᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱗᱗᱒, ᱢᱟᱨᱩᱯᱷ, ᱠᱟᱸᱫᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ, ᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱥᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱾

ᱛᱚᱯᱟ:- ᱠᱟᱸᱫᱟᱦᱟᱨ, ᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱥᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱾

ᱮᱨᱟ :- ᱦᱟᱡᱽᱨᱟᱛ ᱵᱮᱜᱩᱢ ᱤᱯᱷᱟᱛᱼᱩᱥᱼᱱᱤᱥᱟ ᱵᱮᱜᱩᱢ ᱾

ᱯᱩᱨᱟ. ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ :- ᱚᱦᱢᱚᱫᱽ ᱥᱟᱦ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱫᱩᱨᱼᱮᱼᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱾

ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ :- ᱫᱩᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱾

ᱟᱯᱟᱛ :- ᱢᱚᱦᱦᱚᱢᱚᱫᱽ ᱡᱟᱢᱚᱱ ᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱾

ᱮᱸᱜᱟᱛ :- ᱡᱟᱜᱷᱩᱱᱟ ᱟᱞᱟᱠᱚᱡᱟᱭᱤ ᱾

ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ :- ᱤᱥᱞᱟᱢ ᱾

ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱦᱚᱛᱮᱛᱮ ᱵᱨᱚᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱰᱟᱠᱟᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱫᱤᱞᱞᱤᱭ ᱰᱟᱠᱟᱛ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱟᱜ ᱞᱟᱞᱚᱪ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱤᱞᱞᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱥᱳᱴᱤ ᱡᱟᱴ ᱟᱜ ᱨᱤᱭᱟᱥᱚᱛ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱩᱸᱵᱽᱲᱩᱭ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱚᱱᱮᱭ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱵᱨᱚᱡᱽ ᱪᱮᱛᱚᱱ ᱨᱮᱭ ᱚᱫᱷᱤᱠᱟᱨ ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ ᱛᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱟᱴ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱚᱨᱟᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱵᱤᱵᱟᱫᱽ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱦᱟᱞᱟᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱩᱨᱟ.ᱯᱩᱨᱤ ᱯᱷᱟᱭᱫᱟᱭ ᱩᱴᱷᱟ.ᱣ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱦᱢᱚᱫᱽᱥᱟᱦ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱯᱟᱴᱷᱟᱬ ᱠᱚᱣᱤᱡ ᱥᱮᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱫᱤᱞᱞᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱜᱽᱨᱟ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱮ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱯᱟ.ᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱫᱟᱯᱨᱟᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱟᱴ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱵᱚᱞᱞᱚᱵᱽᱜᱚᱰ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱡᱟᱴ ᱥᱚᱨᱫᱟᱨ ᱵᱟᱞᱩᱥᱤᱝ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱩᱨᱚᱡᱽᱢᱚᱞ ᱤᱡ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱦᱚᱯᱚᱱ ᱡᱚᱵᱟᱦᱚᱨ ᱥᱤᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱟ.ᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱦᱩᱰᱤᱧ ᱴᱩᱠᱰᱟ ᱤᱫᱤ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱟᱜ ᱦᱟᱯᱲᱟᱜ ᱯᱟ.ᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱟᱨᱟᱢ ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ ᱮ ᱨᱤᱠᱟ. ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱥ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮᱭ ᱞᱟ.ᱰᱷᱟ.ᱭ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱤᱠᱷᱟ.ᱱ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱵᱟ.ᱭᱨᱤ ᱯᱟ.ᱭᱠᱚ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱦᱟ.ᱨ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱛᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾

ᱦᱩᱞᱥᱟ.ᱭᱤᱭᱟ. ᱦᱚᱛᱮᱛᱮ ᱰᱟᱠᱟᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱦᱩᱞᱥᱟ. ᱭᱤᱭᱟ. ᱫᱚ ᱵᱚᱞᱚᱵᱽᱜᱚᱰ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱟᱰᱮᱼᱯᱟᱥᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱰᱟᱠᱟᱛ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱱᱟ. ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱚᱦᱢᱚᱫᱽᱥᱟᱦ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱡ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱵᱟᱨᱭᱟ ᱥᱚᱨᱫᱟᱨ ᱠᱤᱱᱟᱜ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱡᱚᱛᱚᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱒᱐ ᱜᱮᱥᱟᱨ ᱯᱟᱴᱷᱟᱬ ᱯᱟ.ᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱚᱛᱷᱩᱨᱟ ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ ᱮ ᱵᱷᱮᱡᱟ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾

ᱯᱟ.ᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱢᱚᱛᱷᱩᱨᱟ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱢᱚᱦᱰᱟ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱷᱮᱡᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱯᱟ.ᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱚᱛᱷᱩᱨᱟ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱚᱦᱰᱟ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱚᱛᱷᱩᱨᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱯᱟᱞᱮ ᱘ ᱢᱤᱞ ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ ᱪᱚᱣᱢᱩᱦᱟ. ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱡᱟᱴ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱦᱩᱰᱤᱧ ᱥᱟᱺᱦᱤᱡ ᱯᱟ.ᱭᱠᱚ ᱜᱟᱫᱮᱞ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱩᱱᱠᱩᱣᱟᱜ ᱞᱟ.ᱰᱷᱟ.ᱭ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱴ ᱫᱚ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱵᱟᱦᱟᱫᱩᱨ ᱥᱟᱛᱞᱟᱜ ᱮ ᱞᱟ.ᱰᱷᱟ.ᱭ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱠᱷᱟ.ᱱ ᱵᱟ.ᱭᱨᱤ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱮᱞᱮᱞ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱠᱷᱟ.ᱛᱤᱨ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱮ ᱦᱟᱨᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱯᱟ.ᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱢᱚᱛᱷᱩᱨᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱫᱟᱵᱚᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱩᱸᱵᱽᱲᱩ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱯᱟᱜ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱟᱡ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱯᱟ.ᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱢᱚᱛᱷᱩᱨᱟᱭ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱥᱮᱴᱮᱨ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱵᱨᱚᱡᱽ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱛᱮᱥᱟᱨ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱜᱳᱠᱩᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱱᱚᱡᱚᱨ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱳᱠᱩᱞ ᱠᱩᱸᱵᱽᱲᱩ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱜᱽᱨᱟ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱱᱟ ᱮ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱢᱚᱛᱷᱩᱨᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱡᱚᱢᱩᱱᱟ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ ᱯᱟᱨᱚᱢ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱢᱚᱦᱟᱵᱚᱱ ᱮ ᱰᱟᱠᱟᱛ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱤᱱᱟ. ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱜᱳᱠᱩᱞ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱮ ᱢᱚᱦᱰᱟ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱱᱟᱜᱟ ᱥᱟᱫᱷᱩ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱜᱟᱫᱮᱞ ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱵᱮᱥ ᱴᱷᱤᱠ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱫᱟᱯᱨᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱱᱟ. ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱯᱟ.ᱭᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱨᱮ ᱦᱟ.ᱭᱡᱟ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱠᱷᱟ.ᱛᱤᱨ ᱟᱯᱷᱜᱟᱱ ᱯᱟ.ᱭᱠᱚ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱜᱩᱨ ᱵᱷᱤᱸᱫᱟ.ᱲ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱠᱷᱟ.ᱛᱤᱨ ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱫᱚᱭ ᱨᱩᱣᱟ.ᱲ ᱥᱮᱱ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱜ ᱚᱭ ᱱᱚᱝᱠᱟ ᱥᱟᱫᱷᱩ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱵᱤᱨ ᱵᱷᱟᱱᱴᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱚᱸᱜᱟ ᱵᱳᱨᱳ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱜᱚᱲᱚ ᱦᱚᱛᱮᱛᱮ ᱜᱳᱠᱩᱞ ᱠᱩᱸᱵᱽᱲᱩ ᱩᱡᱟ.ᱲᱚᱜ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱧᱪᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱟᱜᱽᱨᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱰᱟᱠᱟᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱚᱵᱽᱫᱟᱞᱤ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱯᱟ.ᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱨᱚᱡᱽ ᱨᱮ ᱨᱟ.ᱯᱩᱫᱼᱯᱚᱥᱟᱜ, ᱠᱩᱸᱵᱽᱲᱩ ᱩᱡᱟ.ᱲ ᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱜᱽᱨᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱮᱴᱮᱨ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱯᱟ.ᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱜᱽᱨᱟ ᱨᱮᱠᱚ ᱞᱩᱴᱼᱯᱟᱴ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱯᱟ.ᱭᱠᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱨᱮ ᱦᱟ.ᱭᱡᱟ. ᱫᱚᱦᱲᱟ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱩᱣᱟ.ᱲ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱢᱮ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱤᱸᱜᱨᱟᱡᱤ ᱣᱤᱠᱤ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱥᱟ.ᱠᱷᱭᱟ.ᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/10162/Ahmad-Shah-Durrani

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Congress_Country_Studies

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1857/afghanistan/index.htm

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/7798/Afghanistan/21396/The-Durrani-dynasty?anchor=ref306642

https://books.google.com/books?id=4XMSl-aFk1YC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA99#v=onepage&q&f=false

https://books.google.com/?id=F_A8AAAAMAAJ

https://web.archive.org/web/20100812115521/http://www.afghan-web.com/bios/yest/abdali.html

ᱵᱟᱦᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

http://www.4dw.net/royalark/Afghanistan/durrani1.htm

http://www.khyber.org/pashtotribes/a/abdali.shtml

http://www.barmazid.com/2014/08/battle-of-panipat-1761_12.html

http://famousdiamonds.tripod.com/koh-i-noordiamond.html

https://web.archive.org/web/20070813210837/http://www.afghan-network.net/Culture/ahmadshah.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A730801

  1. Ahmad Shah and the Durrani Empire, Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan, 1997, Accessed 2010-08-25