ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
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ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ

ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ

ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱩᱨᱟ. ᱡᱤᱱᱤᱥ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱫᱟᱢᱟᱱ ᱡᱤᱱᱤᱥ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱠᱷᱟ.ᱛᱤᱨ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱡᱩᱜᱽ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱡᱩᱜᱽ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱠᱮᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱸᱜᱽᱞᱤᱥ ᱛᱮᱫᱚ ᱵᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ , ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱷᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱩᱬ ᱟ.ᱲᱟ. ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾[᱑]ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱩᱸᱰ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨᱵᱟᱝ ᱜᱷᱚᱱᱴᱟ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱱᱤᱨᱲᱟ. ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱨᱟᱜ ᱜᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟᱨᱮ ᱨᱚᱝᱜᱟ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱸᱰ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱚᱝᱜᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱟᱸᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱜᱟᱞᱢᱟᱨᱟᱣ ᱡᱚᱝ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱚᱠᱟ ᱚᱠᱟ ᱡᱚᱦᱚᱜ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱜᱚᱫ ᱠᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱝᱜᱟ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱫᱚ "ᱵᱟᱦᱟ" ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸᱵᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾

ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱜᱩᱱ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱜᱮ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ-ᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱠᱟ.ᱡ ᱞᱚᱞᱚ ᱛᱮ ᱛᱚᱨᱲᱟᱣ ᱜᱚᱫᱚᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱞᱟ.ᱠᱛᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱜᱚᱲᱦᱚᱱ ᱜᱟᱱᱚᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱑᱖ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱑ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱨᱟᱝᱜᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱜᱚᱱ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ (gun metal) ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱨᱟᱝᱜᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱞᱚᱞᱚ ᱵᱟᱨ ᱜᱟᱵᱟᱬ ᱞᱮ ᱮᱱᱟᱝ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ ᱜᱚᱱ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱗ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱑ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱨᱟᱝᱜᱟ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱞᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ, ᱨᱚᱠᱚᱲ ᱟᱨ ᱪᱤᱠᱟ.ᱬ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱜᱷᱩᱲᱤ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ ᱫᱚ ᱨᱟᱝᱜᱟ ᱟᱜ ᱞᱚᱞᱚ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱠᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱓ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱕ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱫᱷᱟ.ᱵᱤᱡ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱨᱟᱝᱜᱟ ᱟᱜ ᱞᱟ.ᱠᱛᱤ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱠᱷᱟ.ᱱ ᱱᱤᱛᱚᱜ ᱢᱟ ᱨᱩᱯᱟ. ᱛᱮ ᱛᱚᱞ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱠᱟᱸᱪ ᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱣ ᱤᱫᱤᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱢᱮᱥᱤᱱ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ bearings ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ-ᱟ , ᱪᱮᱫᱟᱜ ᱥᱮ ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱠᱚᱢ ᱜᱟᱥᱟᱣᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱠᱷᱟ.ᱱ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱦᱩᱫᱤᱥ ᱠᱷᱟ.ᱛᱤᱨ ᱚᱱᱟᱨᱮ ᱛᱤᱱᱟ.ᱝᱜᱟᱱ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱠᱟᱜ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱫᱟ.ᱭᱠᱟ. ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ : ᱒᱔ ᱟᱨᱵᱟᱝ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱨᱟᱝᱜᱟ, ᱔ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱘ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱟᱱᱴᱤᱢᱚᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱵᱮᱵᱤᱴ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱥᱟᱠ ᱵᱮᱵᱤᱴ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ bearings ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟᱨᱮ ᱑ ᱨᱟᱯᱟᱝᱜᱚᱥ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱯᱷᱳᱥᱯᱷᱚᱨᱚᱥ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱝᱠᱟᱱ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱷᱳᱥᱯᱷᱳᱨᱚᱥ ᱵᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱮᱞᱩᱢᱤᱱᱤᱭᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱮᱞᱩᱢᱤᱱᱤᱭᱚᱢ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱭ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱟᱜ ᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱠᱷᱤᱭᱟ.ᱣᱜ-ᱟ ᱾


ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

Chinese (ᱪᱟᱭᱱᱤᱡᱽ) ᱚᱱᱚᱞ ᱯᱮᱯᱚᱨ ᱰᱨᱟᱜᱳᱱ (722 BC - 481 BC)
Ever from 7th century Iran

ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱦᱟ.ᱴᱤᱧ[᱒][ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱡᱟ.ᱛᱤ ᱢᱩᱬᱩᱛ ᱢᱮᱥᱟᱞ UNS ᱮᱞᱮᱞ
ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱥᱟᱞ ᱯᱤᱛᱚᱞ ᱡᱤᱸᱠ (Zn) C᱑xxxx–C᱔xxxx,C᱖᱖᱔00–C᱖᱙᱘00
ᱯᱷᱚᱥᱯᱷᱚᱨ ᱵᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱨᱟᱸᱜᱟ (Sn) C᱕xxxx
ᱟᱞᱩᱢᱤᱱᱤᱭᱚᱢ ᱵᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱟᱞᱩᱢᱤᱱᱤᱭᱚᱢ (Al) C᱖᱐᱖᱐᱐–C᱖᱔᱒᱐᱐
ᱥᱤᱞᱤᱠᱚᱱ ᱵᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱥᱤᱞᱤᱠᱚᱱ (Si) C᱖᱔᱗᱐᱐–C᱖᱖᱑᱐᱐
ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱱᱤᱠᱚᱞ, ᱱᱤᱠᱚᱞ ᱥᱤᱞᱵᱚᱨ ᱱᱤᱠᱚᱞ (Ni) C᱗xxxx

ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱢᱮ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_object

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell_founding https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Empire_mantel_clock

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze_and_brass_ornamental_work

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_bronze_inscriptions

ᱥᱟ.ᱠᱷᱭᱟ.ᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. Online Etymological Dictionary http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=bronze
  2. Machinery's Handbook, Industrial Press Inc, New York, ISBN 0-8311-2492-X, Edition 24, page 501

https://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/term_details.aspx?scopeType=Terms&scopeId=18864

https://web.archive.org/web/20150402174311/http://m.friendfeed-media.com/450c6f3cdc92be9e19ecd285bd7f809a9ae1d4d5

https://doi.org/10.1006%2Fjasc.2002.0809

https://archive.is/20140205001504/http://antiquity.ac.uk/ant/087/ant0871030.htm

ᱵᱟᱦᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

https://curlie.org/Business/Materials/Metals/Alloys/Bronze/

https://web.archive.org/web/20061216180940/http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/2005/bell/bell.html

http://wildlifeart.org/Foundry/index2.html

http://www.jepsculpture.com/bronze.shtml

http://web.comhem.se/vikingbronze/