ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱡᱩᱜᱽ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
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ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ

ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ

ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱩᱨᱟ. ᱡᱤᱱᱤᱥ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱫᱟᱢᱟᱱ ᱡᱤᱱᱤᱥ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱠᱷᱟ.ᱛᱤᱨ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱡᱩᱜᱽ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱡᱩᱜᱽ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱠᱮᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱸᱜᱽᱞᱤᱥ ᱛᱮᱫᱚ ᱵᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ , ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱷᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱩᱬ ᱟ.ᱲᱟ. ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱩᱸᱰ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨᱵᱟᱝ ᱜᱷᱚᱱᱴᱟ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱱᱤᱨᱲᱟ. ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱨᱟᱜ ᱜᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟᱨᱮ ᱨᱚᱝᱜᱟ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱸᱰ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱚᱝᱜᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱟᱸᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱜᱟᱞᱢᱟᱨᱟᱣ ᱡᱚᱝ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱚᱠᱟ ᱚᱠᱟ ᱡᱚᱦᱚᱜ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱜᱚᱫ ᱠᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱝᱜᱟ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱫᱚ "ᱵᱟᱦᱟ" ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸᱵᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾

ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱜᱩᱱ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱜᱮ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ-ᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱠᱟ.ᱡ ᱞᱚᱞᱚ ᱛᱮ ᱛᱚᱨᱲᱟᱣ ᱜᱚᱫᱚᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱞᱟ.ᱠᱛᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱜᱚᱲᱦᱚᱱ ᱜᱟᱱᱚᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱑᱖ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱑ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱨᱟᱝᱜᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱜᱚᱱ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ (gun metal) ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱨᱟᱝᱜᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱞᱚᱞᱚ ᱵᱟᱨ ᱜᱟᱵᱟᱬ ᱞᱮ ᱮᱱᱟᱝ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ ᱜᱚᱱ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱗ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱑ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱨᱟᱝᱜᱟ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱞᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ, ᱨᱚᱠᱚᱲ ᱟᱨ ᱪᱤᱠᱟ.ᱬ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱜᱷᱩᱲᱤ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ ᱫᱚ ᱨᱟᱝᱜᱟ ᱟᱜ ᱞᱚᱞᱚ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱠᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱓ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱕ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱫᱷᱟ.ᱵᱤᱡ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱨᱟᱝᱜᱟ ᱟᱜ ᱞᱟ.ᱠᱛᱤ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱠᱷᱟ.ᱱ ᱱᱤᱛᱚᱜ ᱢᱟ ᱨᱩᱯᱟ. ᱛᱮ ᱛᱚᱞ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱠᱟᱸᱪ ᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱣ ᱤᱫᱤᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱢᱮᱥᱤᱱ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ bearings ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ-ᱟ , ᱪᱮᱫᱟᱜ ᱥᱮ ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱠᱚᱢ ᱜᱟᱥᱟᱣᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱠᱷᱟ.ᱱ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱦᱩᱫᱤᱥ ᱠᱷᱟ.ᱛᱤᱨ ᱚᱱᱟᱨᱮ ᱛᱤᱱᱟ.ᱝᱜᱟᱱ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱠᱟᱜ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱫᱟ.ᱭᱠᱟ. ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ : ᱒᱔ ᱟᱨᱵᱟᱝ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱨᱟᱝᱜᱟ, ᱔ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱘ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱟᱱᱴᱤᱢᱚᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱵᱮᱵᱤᱴ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱥᱟᱠ ᱵᱮᱵᱤᱴ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ bearings ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱟᱸᱥᱟᱨᱮ ᱑ ᱨᱟᱯᱟᱝᱜᱚᱥ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱯᱷᱳᱥᱯᱷᱚᱨᱚᱥ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱝᱠᱟᱱ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱷᱳᱥᱯᱷᱳᱨᱚᱥ ᱵᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱛᱟᱸᱵᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱮᱞᱩᱢᱤᱱᱤᱭᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱮᱞᱩᱢᱤᱱᱤᱭᱚᱢ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱭ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱟᱜ ᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱠᱷᱤᱭᱟ.ᱣᱜ-ᱟ ᱾

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

Chinese (ᱪᱟᱭᱱᱤᱡᱽ) ᱚᱱᱚᱞ ᱯᱮᱯᱚᱨ ᱰᱨᱟᱜᱳᱱ (722 BC - 481 BC)
Ever from 7th century Iran

ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱢᱮ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_object

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell_founding https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Empire_mantel_clock

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze_and_brass_ornamental_work

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_bronze_inscriptions

ᱥᱟ.ᱠᱷᱭᱟ.ᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

https://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/term_details.aspx?scopeType=Terms&scopeId=18864

https://web.archive.org/web/20150402174311/http://m.friendfeed-media.com/450c6f3cdc92be9e19ecd285bd7f809a9ae1d4d5

https://doi.org/10.1006%2Fjasc.2002.0809

https://archive.is/20140205001504/http://antiquity.ac.uk/ant/087/ant0871030.htm

ᱵᱟᱦᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

https://curlie.org/Business/Materials/Metals/Alloys/Bronze/

https://web.archive.org/web/20061216180940/http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/2005/bell/bell.html

http://wildlifeart.org/Foundry/index2.html

http://www.jepsculpture.com/bronze.shtml

http://web.comhem.se/vikingbronze/