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ᱢᱟᱣ ᱡᱮᱫᱚᱝ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ, ᱨᱟᱲᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
ᱥᱩᱛᱨᱮᱛ
ᱢᱟᱣᱡᱮᱫᱚᱝ
毛泽东
᱑᱙᱕᱙ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱟᱣ
Central institution membership
ᱯᱟᱨᱥᱚᱱᱟᱞ ᱵᱤᱵᱚᱨᱚᱱ
ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱒᱖, ᱑᱘᱙᱓(1893-12-26)
ᱥᱟᱣᱥᱟᱱ, ᱭᱩᱱᱟᱱ, ᱠᱤᱱ ᱨᱟᱡᱚᱥᱴᱷᱤ
ᱜᱩᱨ᱙ ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱗᱖ (᱘᱒ ᱵᱚᱭᱚᱥ)
ᱵᱮᱭᱡᱤᱝ, ᱪᱤᱱ
ᱛᱚᱯᱟ ᱛᱷᱟᱱᱵᱮᱭᱡᱤᱝ
ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱫᱚᱞᱠᱚᱢᱤᱱᱤᱥᱴ ᱯᱟᱨᱴᱤ ᱚᱯᱷ ᱪᱟᱭᱱᱟ
ᱦᱚᱯᱚᱱ᱑᱐
ᱥᱩᱦᱤ

ᱢᱟᱣ ᱡᱮᱫᱚᱝ (ᱤᱝᱨᱟᱹᱡᱤᱺ Mao Zedong) ᱫᱚ ᱪᱤᱱ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱮᱱ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱱᱮᱛᱟᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ| ᱑᱘᱙᱓ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱒᱖ ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱢᱟᱹᱦᱤᱛ ᱦᱤᱞᱚᱜ ᱪᱤᱱ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱭᱩᱱᱟᱱ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ (Hunan Province) ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱣ ᱥᱟᱱ (Shaoshan) ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱴᱷᱟᱺᱭ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱮᱱ ᱪᱟᱹᱥᱤ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱧᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱭᱮ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ| ᱪᱟᱹᱥᱤ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱦᱚᱯᱚᱱᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱡ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱢᱟᱣ ᱡᱮᱢᱚᱱ ᱪᱟᱹᱥᱤ ᱜᱮ ᱦᱚᱭᱚᱜ ᱚᱱᱟᱭ ᱟᱥ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ| ᱢᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱦᱩᱰᱤᱧ ᱚᱠᱛᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱜᱮ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱞᱟᱥᱮᱨ ᱦᱩᱫᱤᱥ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱ ᱢᱟᱣ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱴᱷᱩᱣᱟᱹ ᱛᱦᱮᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱮ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱟᱴᱠᱟᱨ ᱫᱟᱲᱮ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱡᱟᱹᱛ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱪᱟᱹᱥᱤ ᱢᱩᱱᱤᱥ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱫᱩᱠᱷ ᱫᱟᱹᱱᱫᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱟ| ᱚᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱛᱮ ᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱦᱚᱸᱭ ᱵᱟᱰᱟᱭ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ ᱢᱩᱱᱤᱥ ᱜᱟᱛᱟᱠ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱫᱩᱠᱷ ᱫᱟᱹᱱᱫᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱧᱪᱟᱣᱚᱜ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱮᱥᱠᱟᱨ ᱩᱯᱟᱹᱭ ᱜᱮ ᱦᱚᱭᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱦᱩᱞ| ᱚᱱᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱜᱮ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱢᱚᱱᱥᱩᱵᱟ> ᱯᱩᱨᱚᱱ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱚᱞ ᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱚᱦᱚᱛᱮ ᱵᱩᱡᱷᱟᱹᱣ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱟᱯᱟᱛ ᱛᱮᱫ ᱚᱞ ᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱮ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱠᱦᱚᱨᱚᱪᱮ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱞᱮᱫ ᱛᱮ, ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱡ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱜᱟᱛᱮ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱯᱟᱧᱪᱟ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱡ ᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣᱚᱜ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱫᱚᱭ ᱡᱚᱜᱟᱲ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ|

ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱡᱟᱨᱤ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱛᱟᱭᱱᱚᱢ ᱑᱙᱒᱑ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱣ ᱡᱮᱫᱚᱝ ᱪᱤᱱ ᱠᱚᱢᱤᱱᱤᱣᱩᱥ ᱯᱟᱨᱴᱤ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱵᱟᱵᱟᱱᱫᱷᱟᱣᱤᱡ ᱥᱮ-ᱴᱩ ᱥᱤᱣ (Chen-Tu-Hsiu) ᱡᱚᱯᱚᱲᱟᱣ ᱨᱮᱭᱮ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱚᱢᱤᱱᱤᱥᱴ ᱢᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱥᱟᱝᱦᱟᱭ ᱨᱮ ᱚᱨᱟᱢ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱪᱤᱱ ᱠᱚᱢᱤᱱᱤᱣᱥ ᱯᱟᱨᱴᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱵᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱮ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ|

᱑᱙᱒᱖ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱪᱤᱱ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱵᱷᱟᱨ ᱥᱤᱭᱟᱝ ᱠᱟᱭ ᱪᱮᱠ ᱟᱜ ᱟᱹᱭᱩᱨ ᱴᱮ ᱠᱚᱢᱤᱱᱴᱟᱝ ᱫᱚᱞ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱛᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ| ᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱚᱠᱛᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱟᱣ- ᱥᱮ ᱫᱚᱝ ᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱟᱨᱤ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤ ᱫᱟᱲᱮ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱠᱚᱢᱤᱱᱴᱤᱭᱟᱝ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱜᱟᱛᱟᱠ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱯᱨᱚᱪᱟᱨ ᱵᱤᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱰᱤᱨᱮᱠᱴᱚᱨ ᱦᱤᱥᱟᱹᱵᱽ ᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱦᱟᱞ ᱞᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ, ᱡᱟᱛᱨᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱪᱟᱹᱥᱤ ᱟᱱᱫᱚᱲ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱢᱩᱨᱩᱵᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱦᱟᱞ ᱞᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ|

ᱜᱩᱨ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

᱑᱙᱔᱙ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱮᱠᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱒᱗ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱱᱟᱭ ᱱᱟᱯᱟᱭ ᱛᱮ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱣ ᱵᱟᱱᱟᱣ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱩᱠᱷ ᱢᱩᱦᱤᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱧᱪᱟᱣ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱑᱙᱗᱖ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱙ ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱢᱟᱹᱦᱤᱛ ᱦᱤᱞᱚᱜ ᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱫᱷᱩᱲᱤ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱫᱚᱭ ᱵᱟᱹᱜᱤᱭᱟᱫᱟ| ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱯᱟᱥᱴᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱤᱫᱤ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱜᱚᱴᱟ ᱰᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱤᱨᱩᱫᱦ ᱦᱯᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱩᱫᱤ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱚᱠᱟ ᱵᱟᱦᱨᱮ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱵᱟᱭ ᱟᱧᱡᱚᱢ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱟᱠᱚ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱥᱮᱣᱟ ᱡᱚᱜᱟᱲ ᱡᱚᱛᱚᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱜᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱠᱟᱱᱟ|

ᱯᱚᱛᱚᱵ ᱯᱩᱧᱡᱤ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  • Carter, Peter (1976). Mao. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0192731408. {{cite book}}: Check |isbn= value: checksum (help)
  • Chang, Jung; Halliday, Jon (2005). Mao: The Unknown Story. London: Ted Smart. ISBN 978-0224071260.
  • Dikötter, Frank (2010). Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958–62. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. ISBN 978-0747595083.
  • Feigon, Lee (2002). Mao: A Reinterpretation. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 978-1566634588.
  • Gao, Mobo (2008). The Battle for China's Past: Mao and the Cultural Revolution. London: Pluto Press. ISBN 978-0745327808.
  • Hollingworth, Clare (1985). Mao and the Men Against Him. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 978-0224017608. {{cite book}}: Check |isbn= value: checksum (help)
  • Li, Zhisui (1994). The Private Life of Chairman Mao: The Memoirs of Mao's Personal Physician. London: Random House. ISBN 978-0701140186. {{cite book}}: Check |isbn= value: checksum (help)
  • MacFarquhar, Roderick; Schoenhals, Michael (2008). Mao's Last Revolution. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674027480.
  • Schram, Simon (1966). Mao Tse-Tung. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0140208405.

ᱥᱟ.ᱠᱷᱭᱟ.ᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]