ᱢᱟᱨᱥᱟᱞ ᱮᱸᱜᱮᱞ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ, ᱨᱟᱲᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
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Saturn Saturn symbol.svg
Saturn during Equinox.jpg
Pictured in natural color approaching equinox, photographed by Cassini in July 2008; the dot in the bottom left corner is Titan
Designations
Pronunciation /ˈsætərn/[᱑]
Named after
Saturn
Adjectives Saturnian /səˈtɜrniən/,[᱒] Cronian[᱓] / Kronian[᱔] /ˈkrniən/[᱕]
Orbital characteristics[᱙]
Epoch J2000.0
Aphelion 1,514.50 million km (10.1238 AU)
Perihelion 1,352.55 million km (9.0412 AU)
1,433.53 million km (9.5826 AU)
Eccentricity 0.0565
  • 29.4571 yr
  • 10,759.22 d
  • 24,491.07 Saturnian solar days[᱖]
378.09 days
9.68 km/s (6.01 mi/s)
317.020°[᱗]
Inclination
113.665°
339.392°[᱗]
Known satellites 82 with formal designations; innumerable additional moonlets.[᱙]
Physical characteristics[᱙]
Mean radius
58,232 km (36,184 mi)[lower-alpha ᱑]
Equatorial radius
Polar radius
Flattening 0.09796
Volume
  • 8.2713×1014 km3 (1.9844×1014 cu mi)[lower-alpha ᱑]
  • 763.59 Earths
Mass
  • 5.6834×1026 kg
  • 95.159 Earths
Mean density
0.687 g/cm3 (0.0248 lb/cu in)[lower-alpha ᱒] (less than water)
0.22[᱑᱑]
35.5 km/s (22.1 mi/s)[lower-alpha ᱑]
ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:RA ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:+-[᱑᱒][᱑᱓]
Equatorial rotation velocity
9.87 km/s (6.13 mi/s; 35,500 km/h)[lower-alpha ᱑]
26.73° (to orbit)
North pole right ascension
40.589°; ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:RA
North pole declination
83.537°
Albedo
Surface temp. min mean max
1 bar 134 K (−139 °C)
0.1 bar 84 K (−189 °C)
−0.55[᱑᱖] to +1.17[᱑᱖]
14.5″ to 20.1″ (excludes rings)
Atmosphere[᱙]
Surface pressure
140 kPa[᱑᱗]
59.5 km (37.0 mi)
Composition by volume
96.3%±2.4%hydrogen (H
2
)
3.25%±2.4%helium (He)
0.45%±0.2%methane (CH
4
)
0.0125%±0.0075%ammonia (NH
3
)
0.0110%±0.0058%hydrogen deuteride (HD)
0.0007%±0.00015%ethane (C
2
H
6
)
Ices:

ᱵᱟᱷᱨᱤ ᱰᱷᱟᱸᱪᱟ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named walter2003
  2. "Saturnian". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  3. "Enabling Exploration with Small Radioisotope Power Systems" (PDF). NASA. ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2016. Retrieved 26 ᱡᱟᱱᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ 2016.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  4. Müller; et al. (2010). "Azimuthal plasma flow in the Kronian magnetosphere". Journal of Geophysical Research. 115: A08203. 
  5. "Cronian". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  6. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named CSeligman
  7. ᱗.᱐ ᱗.᱑ ᱗.᱒ ᱗.᱓ ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named VSOP87
  8. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named meanplane
  9. ᱙.᱐ ᱙.᱑ ᱙.᱒ ᱙.᱓ ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named fact
  10. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named nasafact
  11. Fortney, J.J.; Helled, R.; Nettlemann, N.; Stevenson, D.J.; Marley, M.S.; Hubbard, W.B.; Iess, L. (6 ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2018). "The Interior of Saturn". In Baines, K.H.; Flasar, F.M.; Krupp, N.; Stallard, T. Saturn in the 21st Century. Cambridge University Press. pp. 44–68. ISBN 978-1-108-68393-7. 
  12. McCartney, Gretchen; Wendel, JoAnna (18 ᱡᱟᱱᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ 2019). "Scientists Finally Know What Time It Is on Saturn". NASA. Retrieved 18 ᱡᱟᱱᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ 2019. 
  13. Mankovich, Christopher; et al. (17 ᱡᱟᱱᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ 2019). "Cassini Ring Seismology as a Probe of Saturn's Interior. I. Rigid Rotation". The Astrophysical Journal. 871 (1): 1. arXiv:1805.10286Freely accessible. Bibcode:2019ApJ...871....1M. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaf798. 
  14. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Hanel_et_al
  15. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Mallama_et_al
  16. ᱑᱖.᱐ ᱑᱖.᱑ ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Mallama_and_Hilton
  17. Knecht, Robin (24 ᱚᱠᱴᱚᱵᱚᱨ 2005). "On The Atmospheres Of Different Planets" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 ᱚᱠᱴᱚᱵᱚᱨ 2017. Retrieved 14 ᱚᱠᱴᱚᱵᱚᱨ 2017.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)

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