ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ

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ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱟᱦᱟᱜ ᱪᱟᱵᱟ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱴᱮᱱ ᱢᱩᱪᱟ.ᱫ ᱠᱟ.ᱢᱤ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱴᱮᱱ ᱨᱟᱺᱰᱤ ᱢᱟᱹᱭᱡᱩ ᱟᱡ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱦᱮᱨᱮᱞ ᱟᱜ ᱜᱚᱡᱩᱜ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱥᱟᱨᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱜᱤᱰᱤ।[᱑]

ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱟ.ᱥᱤ ᱯᱮ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱪᱚᱞᱤᱛ ᱟ.ᱜᱩ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱟᱰᱟᱭ ᱧᱟᱢᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱮᱱ ᱨᱮᱦᱚᱸ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱮᱨᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱳᱱ ᱥᱮ ᱟᱨᱮ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱯᱟᱸᱡᱟ ᱟ.ᱜᱩ ᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱯᱨᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱧᱟᱢᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ । ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱸᱧᱮ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱮᱦᱚᱵ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱞᱟ.ᱭ ᱟ.ᱜᱩ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ। ᱜᱮᱞ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱚᱴᱟ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱜᱮ-ᱵᱟᱨ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱮ-ᱤᱨᱟ.ᱞ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱦᱟ.ᱵᱤᱡ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱜᱟᱛᱟᱠ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱦᱚ' ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱫᱚᱢ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱩ ᱜᱟᱛᱟᱠ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱧᱟᱢᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ ᱟᱥᱚ ᱠᱟᱭᱛᱮ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱵᱮᱵᱚᱥᱛᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱜᱟᱛᱟᱠ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱨᱮ [᱒]। ᱮᱛᱚᱢ-ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱤᱱᱰᱚᱱᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ[᱓] ᱟᱨ ᱵᱷᱤᱭᱮᱛᱱᱟᱢ ᱨᱮᱦᱚᱸ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱯᱟ.ᱥᱤᱨ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱫᱚ ᱮᱱ ᱨᱮᱦᱚᱸ ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱜᱚᱴᱟ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱠᱟ.ᱴᱤᱡ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱪᱚᱞᱤᱛ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱥᱮ ᱫᱷᱚᱢᱚᱢ ᱥᱚᱥᱛᱚᱨ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱥᱚᱫᱚᱨ ᱵᱟ.ᱱᱩᱜ-ᱟ |[᱔]

᱑᱘0᱓ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱚᱞᱠᱟᱛᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱡᱟᱭᱜᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱟᱱᱟᱵᱟᱨᱚᱱ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱚᱞᱠᱟᱛᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱔᱘ ᱥᱟᱺᱜᱤᱧ ᱡᱟᱭᱜᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱣᱤᱞᱤᱭᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱨᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱔᱓᱘ ᱜᱚᱴᱮᱱ ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱫ ᱛᱮ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱡᱚᱝ ᱟᱱᱟ[᱕]। ᱑᱘᱑᱕ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱑᱘᱑᱘ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱦᱟ.ᱵᱤᱡ ᱵᱮᱝᱜᱚᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱚᱛᱤᱱ ᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱜᱷᱚᱴᱱᱟ ᱵᱟᱨ ᱜᱩᱱ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱮᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱓᱗᱘ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱘᱓᱙ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ। ᱠᱨᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱢᱤᱥᱚᱱᱟᱨᱤ ᱣᱤᱞᱤᱭᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱨᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱨᱟᱢᱚᱱ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱩ ᱥᱚᱢᱟᱡᱽ ᱥᱩᱥᱟ.ᱨᱤᱭᱟ. ᱨᱟᱡᱟᱨᱟᱢ ᱢᱚᱦᱚᱱ ᱨᱟᱭ ᱟᱜ ᱠᱩᱨᱩᱢᱩᱴᱩ ᱛᱮ ᱑᱘᱒᱙ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱮᱝᱜᱚᱞ ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱵᱚᱱᱫᱚ ᱩᱛᱟ.ᱨ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ-ᱮ ᱰᱟᱢᱰᱟᱦᱮ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ । ᱤᱱᱟ. ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱯᱨᱤᱥᱞᱤ ᱥᱴᱮᱴ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱟ.ᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱞᱟᱜᱟᱣ ᱦᱩᱭᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱑᱘᱖᱑ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱚᱦᱟ ᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱵᱷᱤᱠᱴᱚᱨᱤᱭᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱜᱚᱴᱟ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱨᱟᱭ ᱵᱚᱱᱫᱽ ᱩᱛᱟ.ᱨ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ । ᱱᱮᱯᱟᱞ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱑᱙᱒᱐ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱵᱚᱱᱫᱽ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ |

ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱟᱨᱪᱪᱟ ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱯᱤᱴᱷ

ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱟ.ᱲᱟ. ᱫᱚ ᱚᱢᱚᱱ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱫᱮᱵᱤ ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱜ, ᱚᱠᱚᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱯᱟᱛᱮᱫ ᱫᱚᱠᱷᱚ ᱟᱡ ᱟᱨ ᱟᱡ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱪᱷᱟᱛᱟ ᱫᱟᱨᱮ ᱢᱚᱦᱟ ᱫᱮᱵᱽ ᱥᱤᱵᱽ ᱛᱟᱠᱤᱱ ᱠᱤᱱ ᱚᱯᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱵᱟᱭ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱯᱟ-ᱵᱟ.ᱨᱤ ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱨᱮ ᱜᱮ ᱦᱚᱲᱦᱚᱭ ᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱜᱤᱰᱤ ᱠᱟᱜ ᱛᱟᱭᱟ।

ᱥᱤᱱᱫᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱚᱝᱥᱠᱨᱤᱛ ᱥᱟᱛᱷᱟᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ "ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱮ ᱮᱨᱟ" [᱖]। ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱟ.ᱲᱟ. ᱛᱮ ᱜᱮ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱴᱟᱜ-ᱮ ᱵᱩᱡᱷᱟ.ᱣ ᱚᱪᱚᱜ-ᱟ । ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱴᱟᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱥᱮᱱᱟᱜ, ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱜᱩᱡᱩᱜ ᱥᱮ ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱚᱜᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ[᱗]। ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱫᱟᱨᱟᱢ ᱟ.ᱱ, ᱑᱙᱘᱗ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱦᱟ.ᱴᱤᱧ-᱑ ᱟᱨ ᱒ (ᱥᱤ) ᱩᱱᱩᱫᱩᱜ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱠ ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱵᱩᱡᱷᱟ.ᱣᱚᱜ-ᱟ ।[᱘]

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱯᱟ.ᱦᱤᱞ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱟᱫᱚᱢ ᱯᱟ.ᱛᱤᱭᱟ.ᱣᱜ ᱞᱮᱠ ᱥᱟᱵᱳᱛ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱩᱯᱛᱚ ᱡᱩᱜᱽ ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱽ.ᱜᱩ ᱟᱠᱱᱟ । ᱜᱨᱤᱠ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢᱤᱭᱟ. ᱰᱤᱚᱰᱚᱨᱟᱥ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱨᱚᱵᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱤᱭᱟᱥ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚ ᱠᱮᱛᱷᱟᱭ ᱡᱟ.ᱛ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ । ᱰᱤᱭᱚᱰᱚᱨᱟᱥ ᱮ ᱥᱚᱫᱚᱨ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱟ ᱵᱟᱝᱢᱟ ᱓᱑᱖ ᱢᱟᱥᱤ ᱢᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ ᱜᱮᱵᱤᱭᱮᱱ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱞᱟ.ᱲᱦᱟ.ᱭ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱮᱱᱟᱯᱯᱛᱤ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱣ ᱨᱟᱥ ᱟᱜ ᱜᱚᱡᱚᱜ ᱨᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱨᱟ.ᱱᱰᱤ ᱮᱨᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱟᱨᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱦᱚᱬᱢᱚᱭ ᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱜᱤᱰᱤ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ।[᱙]

ᱫᱚᱥᱟᱨ ᱟᱜ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱮᱠᱡᱮᱞ ᱢᱟᱭᱠᱮᱞᱥ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱱᱮᱯᱟᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱔᱖᱔ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱕᱑᱐ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱥᱮᱨᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱚᱞ ᱯᱨᱚᱢᱚᱱ ᱧᱟᱢᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ।ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱥᱮᱨᱣᱟ ᱱᱮ-ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱜᱮ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱟᱰᱟᱭᱚᱜ ᱧᱟᱢᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ । ᱛᱤᱱᱟ.ᱜ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱪᱚᱝ ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱥᱮᱨᱣᱟ ᱨᱣᱭᱟᱜ ᱜᱷᱚᱴᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱷᱤᱨᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱷᱚᱫᱟ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ ᱠᱚ। ᱤᱨᱟ.ᱞ ᱥᱮ ᱟᱨᱮ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱝᱠᱟᱱ ᱫᱷᱤᱨᱤ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱠᱚᱢ ᱜᱮ ᱧᱟᱢᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ। ᱜᱮ- ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱣᱨᱢᱟ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱧᱟᱢᱚᱜ ᱮᱦᱚᱵ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱫᱷᱤᱨᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱨᱟᱡᱚᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱧᱮᱱ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ। ᱮᱛᱚᱢ-ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱪᱚᱞᱟ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱱᱴᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱚ ᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱥᱮᱨᱣᱟ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ।

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. Eraly, Abraham. The First Spring: The Golden Age of India. Penguin. p. 370. 
  2. Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism: Past and Present. Princeton University Press. pp. 149–153. ISBN 9780691089539. 
  3. A History of Modern Indonesia since c. 1300, by Merle Calvin Ricklefs, on forced treaties, see Wiener, Margaret J. (1995). Visible and Invisible Realms: Power, Magic, and Colonial Conquest in Bali. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 267–268. ISBN 9780226885827. 
  4. Jain, Meenakshi (2016). Sati: Evangelicals, Baptist Missionaries, and the Changing Colonial Discourse (in English). Aryan Books International. ISBN 9788173055522. Retrieved 17 ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2018. 
  5. Hardgrave, Jr, Robert L. "Bengal Past and Present". University of Texas. Retrieved 12 ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2018. 
  6. P. J. Cain, Mark Harrison (2001). Imperialism: Critical Concepts in Historical Studies. Routledge. p. 209. ISBN 9780415206303. 
  7. Weinberger-Thomas, Catherine (1999). Ashes of Immortality: Widow-Burning in India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780226885681. 
  8. "Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987 Official text of the Act". Government of India's National Resource Centre for Women (NCRW). Archived from the original on 25 ᱚᱠᱴᱚᱵᱚᱨ 2009. 
  9. Irfan Habib; Vivekanand Jha (2004). Mauryan India. A People's History of India. Aligarh Historians Society / Tulika Books. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-85229-92-8.