ᱧᱮᱞᱮ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
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ᱧᱮᱞᱮ ᱨᱟᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱟᱢᱴᱟᱣᱮᱫ-ᱟ

ᱧᱮᱞᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱩᱰᱟᱹᱣ ᱵᱟᱲᱟᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱤᱯᱤᱲᱤ ᱾ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱒᱐,᱐᱐᱐ ᱜᱚᱴᱟᱝ ᱡᱟᱹᱛ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱧᱮᱞᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾ [1] ᱧᱮᱞᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱦᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱨᱟᱥᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱢᱴᱟᱣᱟ ᱾[2] ᱧᱮᱞᱮ ᱫᱮ ᱟᱱᱴᱟᱨᱠᱴᱤᱠᱟ ᱵᱮᱜᱚᱨ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱜᱚᱴᱟ ᱨᱮᱜᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱧᱮᱞᱚᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ [3] ᱧᱮᱞᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱩᱱ ᱛᱷᱚᱠ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱟᱠᱟᱫ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ :-

  • ᱦᱚᱱᱤ ᱧᱮᱞᱮ
  • ᱵᱚᱢᱵᱚᱞ ᱧᱮᱞᱮ
  • ᱥᱴᱤᱝᱞᱮᱥ ᱧᱮᱞᱮ
  • ᱥᱚᱞᱤᱴᱟᱨᱤ ᱧᱮᱞᱮ

ᱭᱩᱨᱚᱯ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱦᱚᱱᱤ ᱧᱮᱞᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱥᱩᱞ ᱜᱟᱱᱚᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱩᱠᱩ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱟᱯᱱᱟᱨᱟᱜ ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱚ ᱪᱟᱥ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱠᱚᱣᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱮᱯᱤᱠᱚᱞᱪᱚᱨ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱠᱨᱟᱵᱚᱱᱟᱭᱰᱤ (Crabonidae) ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱡᱽ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱧᱮᱞᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱞᱩᱛᱤ ᱛᱮᱨᱚᱢ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱦᱟᱯᱲᱟᱢ ᱠᱚ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱛᱤᱡᱩ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱥᱤᱠᱟᱹᱨᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱛᱤᱡᱩ ᱥᱮᱸᱫᱽᱨᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱦᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱚᱡᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜ-ᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱛᱩᱡᱩ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱮᱸᱫᱽᱨᱟᱭᱮᱫ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱩᱠᱱᱩ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱦᱟ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱵᱚᱜ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱟᱨ ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱦᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱭ/ᱨᱮᱬᱩ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱫᱷᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱟᱯᱟᱞ ᱠᱚᱜ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱜᱮ ᱟᱠᱚᱨᱤᱱ ᱞᱟᱨᱵᱷᱟ (larva) ᱠᱚ ᱡᱚᱢ ᱚᱪᱚᱭᱮᱫ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱝᱠᱟ ᱦᱮ ᱩᱞᱴᱟᱹᱣ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱵᱷᱮᱥᱯᱚᱭᱮᱰ (vespoid ) ᱧᱮᱞᱮ ᱥᱟᱶ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱟᱦᱟ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱥᱤᱠᱟᱹᱨᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱦᱟᱯᱲᱟᱢ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱪᱷᱟᱯ/ᱪᱤᱱᱦᱟᱹ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱨᱵᱟᱝ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱱᱚᱝᱠᱟᱱ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱣ ᱥᱟᱨᱮᱡ (fossil), ᱱᱤᱛ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱟᱸ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱡᱟᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱢᱵᱟᱨ ᱨᱮ, ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱨᱤᱥᱴᱮᱥᱩᱭᱚᱥ ᱡᱩᱜᱽ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱴᱟᱣ ᱥᱟᱨᱮᱡ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱨᱵᱤᱠᱩᱞᱮᱴ (corbiculate) ᱧᱮᱞᱮ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱾ [4]

ᱦᱚᱲᱢᱚ ᱜᱚᱲᱦᱚᱱ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱧᱮᱞᱮ ᱨᱮᱜᱮ ᱞᱩᱛᱤ ᱛᱮᱨᱚᱢ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱝ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱡᱽ ᱥᱮ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱟ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱜᱚᱲᱦᱚᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱞᱩᱛᱤ ᱛᱮᱨᱚᱢ ᱯᱮ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾

  • ᱑- ᱨᱟᱹᱱᱤ ᱞᱩᱛᱤ
  • ᱒- ᱥᱟᱺᱰᱤ ᱞᱩᱛᱤ
  • ᱓- ᱢᱩᱱᱤᱥ ᱞᱩᱛᱤ

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]


ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. Cite web | url = https://books.google.com/books?id=jMuShwtyem0C&pg=PA145&lpg=PA145&dq=bee+species+20000&source=bl&ots=7RSbMW34tw&sig=oi55RU7zUtDzmAFKdwBU73k60J4&hl=en&ei=SLmiSpHDE4yd4gaqzsXvCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4#v=onepage&q=bee%20species%2020000&f=false | title = Bee pollination in agriculture| accessdate = 2009-09-05| first = Rosalind| last = James
  2. [1]
  3. Danforth, B.N., Sipes, S., Fang, J., Brady, S.G. (2006) The history of early bee diversification based on five genes plus morphology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: 15118-15123.
  4. cite journal |author1=Cardinal, Sophie |author2=Danforth, Bryan N. |year=2011 |title=The Antiquity and Evolutionary History of Social Behavior in Bees |journal=PLoS ONE |volume=6 |issue=6 |pages=e21086 |doi=10.1371/journal.pone.0021086 |pmid=21695157 |pmc=3113908