ᱮᱰᱟᱢ ᱤᱥᱢᱤᱛᱷ

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Adam Smith

ᱮᱰᱟᱢ ᱥᱢᱤᱛᱷ (᱕ ᱡᱩᱱ ᱑᱗᱒᱓ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱑᱗ ᱡᱩᱞᱟᱭ ᱑᱗᱙᱐) ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱠᱟᱴᱤᱥ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ-ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱟᱹᱨᱤᱭᱟᱹ, ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱥᱤᱭᱟᱹ, ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ-ᱟᱹᱨᱤᱭᱟᱹᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱫᱟᱛᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱦᱟᱹᱞᱤ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱥᱤᱨᱡᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱨᱮ ᱮᱰᱟᱢ ᱥᱢᱤᱛᱷ (ᱡᱩᱱ ᱕, ᱑᱗᱒᱓ - ᱡᱩᱞᱟᱭ ᱑᱗, ᱑᱗᱙᱐) ᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱯᱚᱛᱚᱵ ᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱥᱚᱢᱯᱚᱛᱤ (The Wealth of Nations) ᱫᱚ ᱜᱮᱨᱟᱹᱞ ᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱛᱟᱵᱽᱫᱷᱤ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ-ᱟᱹᱨᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱠᱚ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱡᱩᱨ ᱚᱨᱥᱚᱝ ᱯᱟᱲᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱟᱨᱞ ᱢᱟᱨᱠᱥ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱰᱮᱵᱤᱰ ᱨᱤᱠᱟᱨᱰᱚ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱟᱹᱰᱤᱜᱟᱱ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱟᱨᱡᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱫ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ-ᱟᱹᱨᱤᱭᱟᱹ, ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱟ-ᱥᱟᱬᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱱᱮᱛᱟ ᱮᱰᱟᱢ ᱥᱢᱤᱛᱷ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱫᱤᱥ-ᱩᱫᱤᱥ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱵᱟᱜᱮ ᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱛᱟᱵᱽᱫᱷᱤ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ-ᱟᱹᱨᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱮᱰᱟᱢ ᱥᱢᱤᱛᱷ ᱟᱜ ᱩᱭᱦᱟᱹᱨ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱫᱤᱥ-ᱩᱫᱤᱥ ᱮ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱠᱩ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱨᱮ ᱢᱟᱨᱠᱥ, ᱤᱸᱜᱮᱞᱥ, ᱢᱟᱞᱛᱷᱚᱥ, ᱢᱤᱞ, ᱠᱤᱸᱱᱥ (Keynes) ᱟᱨ ᱯᱷᱨᱤᱰᱢᱮᱱ (Friedman) ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱠᱚᱫᱚ ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱨᱮ ᱾ ᱱᱤᱡᱮ ᱮᱰᱟᱢ ᱥᱢᱤᱛᱷ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱟᱨᱤᱥᱴᱚᱴᱚᱞ, ᱡᱟᱱ ᱞᱟᱠ, ᱦᱟᱵᱽᱥ, ᱢᱮᱰᱵᱤᱞᱮ, ᱯᱷᱨᱟᱱᱥᱤᱥ ᱦᱚᱪᱥᱚᱱ, ᱦᱭᱩᱢ, ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱩᱫᱷᱤᱢᱟᱱ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱚᱨᱥᱚᱝ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱢᱤᱛᱷ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱵᱤ ᱟᱹᱨᱤ, ᱨᱟᱡᱽ-ᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱥ, ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱨᱤᱛ-ᱟᱹᱨᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱴᱷᱟᱶᱨᱮ ᱫᱟᱢᱼᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱮ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤ ᱟᱠᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱢᱟᱱᱟᱣ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ-ᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱜᱮᱭ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱟᱠᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱮᱰᱟᱢ ᱥᱢᱤᱛᱷ ᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱴᱷᱟᱹᱣᱠᱟᱹ ᱵᱟᱹᱱᱩᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱛᱤᱱᱟᱹᱜ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱕ ᱡᱩᱱ ᱑᱗᱒᱓ ᱟᱨ ᱛᱤᱱᱟᱹᱜ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱱᱟᱹ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱑᱖ ᱡᱩᱱ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱟᱱᱟᱣᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱱᱟᱜ ᱜᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱠᱚᱜ ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱠᱳᱴᱞᱮᱸᱰ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱟᱹᱛᱩ ᱠᱤᱨᱠᱟᱞᱫᱤ (Kirkaldy, Fife, Scotland) ᱨᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱮᱰᱟᱢ ᱤᱡ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱟᱥᱴᱚᱢ ᱵᱤᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽᱨᱮ ᱤᱱᱪᱟᱨᱡᱽ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱩᱱᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱜᱩᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱢᱤᱛᱷ ᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱩᱨᱥᱩᱯᱩᱨ ᱛᱩᱨᱩᱭ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱨᱮᱜᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱴᱷᱤᱠ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱮᱰᱟᱢ ᱟᱡ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱟᱭᱳ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱹᱝ ᱜᱮ ᱦᱚᱯᱚᱱ ᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱩᱱᱤ ᱯᱩᱱ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱜᱮᱭ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ, ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱟᱜᱷᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱛᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱫᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱡᱤᱯᱥᱤ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱟᱱ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱜᱟᱶᱛᱟ ᱦᱚᱛᱮᱛᱮ ᱮᱰᱟᱢ ᱠᱚ ᱠᱩᱸᱵᱽᱲᱩ ᱠᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱ ᱡᱚᱦᱚᱜ ᱟᱡ ᱦᱚᱯᱚᱱ ᱵᱟ ᱟᱡ ᱟᱭᱳᱭ ᱜᱚᱲᱚ ᱟᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱨᱡᱚ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱮᱰᱟᱢ ᱱᱟᱯᱟᱭ ᱛᱮᱠᱚ ᱟᱹᱜᱩ ᱨᱩᱣᱟᱹᱲ ᱠᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾

ᱚᱞ ᱯᱚᱲᱦᱚᱱ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱵᱟᱵᱟᱦᱟᱜ ᱜᱩᱨ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱥᱢᱤᱛᱷ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱡ ᱟᱭᱳ ᱜᱮ ᱜᱞᱟᱥᱜᱳ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱵᱤᱨᱫᱟᱹᱜᱟᱲ ᱨᱮ ᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣᱜ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱮ ᱵᱷᱮᱡᱟ ᱠᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱ ᱡᱚᱦᱚᱜ ᱥᱢᱤᱛᱷ ᱟᱜ ᱵᱚᱭᱚᱥ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱞᱤ ᱜᱮᱯᱩᱱ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱱᱟᱯᱟᱭ ᱵᱩᱫᱷᱤ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱭ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱟᱥᱲᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱚᱲᱦᱚᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱱᱟᱯᱟᱭ ᱮᱞᱮᱞ ᱚᱨᱡᱚ ᱛᱮᱭ ᱥᱟᱹᱛ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱥᱠᱳᱞᱟᱨᱥᱤᱯ ᱮ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱫᱚ ᱚᱠᱥᱯᱷᱚᱨᱰ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱵᱤᱨᱫᱟᱹᱜᱟᱲ ᱥᱮᱱᱚᱜ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱦᱚᱨ ᱡᱷᱤᱡ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱥᱮᱫᱟᱭ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱭᱩᱨᱚᱯᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱮ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱮ ᱟᱢᱮᱴ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱷᱟᱹᱣᱠᱟᱹ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱫᱟᱲᱮ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱥᱟᱬᱮᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱤᱡ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱪᱮᱛᱮᱫᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱣ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱴᱷᱟᱶᱨᱮ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱞᱤ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱥᱩᱢᱩᱝ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱟᱢᱮᱴ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱢᱩᱬ ᱛᱷᱟᱯᱚᱱ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱛᱮ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱵᱮᱵᱚᱥᱛᱟ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱨᱮᱦᱚᱸ ᱡᱩᱜᱽ ᱟᱹᱨᱩᱯᱷᱮᱨᱟᱣᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱮᱱᱮᱢ ᱦᱚᱸᱛᱟᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱑᱗᱓᱘ ᱥᱟᱞᱮᱨᱮ ᱥᱢᱤᱛᱷ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱜᱟᱹᱠᱷᱩᱲ ᱼ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱥᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱯᱷᱨᱟᱱᱥᱤᱥ ᱦᱚᱪᱤᱥᱚᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱡᱚᱛᱚᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱥ ᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱨᱤ ᱥᱚᱱᱮᱨ ᱵᱤᱱᱤᱰ ᱮ ᱥᱟᱹᱛ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱯᱷᱨᱟᱱᱥᱤᱥ ᱨᱤᱱᱤᱡ ᱢᱮᱫᱷᱟ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱡᱩᱨ ᱮ ᱚᱨᱥᱚᱝ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱭ ᱠᱷᱮᱢᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱪ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱦᱤᱲᱤᱧᱚᱜᱼᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮᱭ ᱢᱟᱱᱟᱣᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱵᱩᱫᱷᱤ ᱛᱟᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱥᱢᱤᱛᱷ ᱟᱜ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱤᱨᱫᱟᱹᱜᱟᱲ ᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣᱜ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱩᱯᱨᱩᱢ ᱮ ᱮᱢᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣ ᱥᱟᱹᱛ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱡᱩᱣᱟᱹᱱ ᱥᱢᱤᱛᱷ ᱛᱤᱱ ᱡᱚᱦᱚᱜ ᱨᱩᱣᱟᱹᱲ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱡ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱦᱟᱯᱲᱟᱢ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱥᱠᱳᱴᱞᱮᱸᱰ ᱮ ᱥᱮᱴᱮᱨ ᱮᱱᱟ, ᱤᱱᱟᱹᱜ ᱛᱮᱫᱚ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱟᱹᱰᱤᱜᱟᱱ ᱫᱟᱢᱟᱱ ᱜᱟᱞᱚᱪ ᱮ ᱮᱢ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱫ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱱᱟᱯᱟᱭ ᱩᱯᱨᱩᱢ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱤᱫᱤᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾

ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱢᱮ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_capital

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_abolitionist_forerunners

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Fellows_of_the_Royal_Society_of_Arts

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=7824760&fileId=S1474691300001062

https://books.google.com/?id=pUmfjlAfM3kC

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Journal_of_Law_and_Economics

ᱵᱟᱦᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

http://www.adamsmith.org/adam-smith/

https://openlibrary.org/authors/OL39302A

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Gutenberg

https://archive.org/search.php?query=%28%28subject%3A%22Smith%2C%20Adam%22%20OR%20subject%3A%22Adam%20Smith%22%20OR%20creator%3A%22Smith%2C%20Adam%22%20OR%20creator%3A%22Adam%20Smith%22%20OR%20title%3A%22Adam%20Smith%22%20OR%20description%3A%22Smith%2C%20Adam%22%20OR%20description%3A%22Adam%20Smith%22%29%20OR%20%28%221723-1790%22%20AND%20Smith%29%29%20AND%20%28-mediatype:software%29