ᱵᱷᱤᱭᱮᱱᱛᱤᱭᱮᱱ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ, ᱨᱟᱲᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
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ᱵᱷᱤᱭᱮᱱᱛᱤᱭᱮᱱ
  • ວຽງຈັນ
  • ວຽງຈັນທນ໌  (Lao)
Ville de Vientiane  (French)
ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ
ᱜᱷᱩᱲᱤ ᱥᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ: Temple at That Luang, Haw Phra Kaew, That Dam, That Luang Stupa, Mekong Riverside, Patuxai, Wat Si Saket
ᱜᱷᱩᱲᱤ ᱥᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ: Temple at That Luang, Haw Phra Kaew, That Dam, That Luang Stupa, Mekong Riverside, Patuxai, Wat Si Saket
ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ Flag of Laos.svg ᱞᱟᱣᱚᱥ
ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ.  ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ Vientiane Prefecture
ᱛᱷᱟᱯᱚᱱ 9th century[᱑]
ᱮᱨᱤᱭᱟ
 • ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱜᱩᱴ 130 ᱠᱤᱢᱤ (50 ᱜᱟᱺᱴ ᱢᱟᱭᱤᱞ)
ᱩᱥᱩᱞ 174 ᱢᱤᱴᱚᱨ (570 ᱯᱷᱩᱴ)
ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱟ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ (2015 Census)
 • ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱜᱩᱴ ᱘᱒᱐,᱙᱔᱐[᱒]
UTC+7 (ICT)

ᱵᱷᱤᱭᱮᱱᱛᱤᱭᱮᱱ ( /viˌɛntiˈɑːn/ vi-EN-ti-AHN,[᱓] ᱞᱟᱣ ວຽງຈັນ, ᱛᱷᱟᱭ ᱺ เวียงจันทน์) ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱞᱟᱣᱚᱥ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱞᱟᱣᱚᱥ ᱟᱨ ᱛᱷᱟᱭᱞᱮᱱᱰ ᱵᱚᱰᱟᱨ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱢᱮᱠᱚᱝ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ ᱟᱨᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱵᱷᱤᱭᱮᱱᱛᱤᱭᱮᱱ ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱫᱷᱟᱣ ᱑᱕᱖᱓ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱚᱨᱢᱤᱭᱟ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱵᱷᱤᱭᱮᱱᱛᱤᱭᱮᱱ ᱯᱷᱨᱮᱸᱪ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱚ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ, ᱟᱨ ᱱᱮᱛᱟᱨ ᱫᱤᱱ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱩᱛᱷᱱᱟᱹᱣ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱞᱟᱣᱚᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱦᱚ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱒᱐᱑᱕ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱦᱚᱱ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱮᱞ ᱘᱒᱐,᱐᱐᱐᱾

ᱵᱷᱤᱭᱮᱱᱛᱤᱭᱮᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱞᱟᱣᱚᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱛᱷᱟᱯᱚᱛᱛᱚ (monument) ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱪᱮᱫᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱺ ᱯᱷᱟ ᱛᱷᱟᱴ ᱞᱟᱣᱚᱝ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱞᱟᱣᱚᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱪᱤᱱᱦᱟᱹ ᱟᱨ ᱞᱟᱣᱚᱥ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱩᱫᱫᱷᱤᱡᱚᱢ ᱟᱭᱠᱚᱱ (icon) ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱵᱟᱲᱟᱭᱚᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱟᱨᱦᱚ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱢᱩᱨᱩᱫ ᱵᱩᱫᱫᱷᱚ ᱢᱚᱱᱫᱤᱨ ᱪᱮᱫᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱦᱟᱣ ᱯᱷᱨᱟ ᱠᱮᱣᱟ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾

᱒᱐᱐᱙ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱰᱮ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ-ᱯᱚᱪᱮ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟᱭ ᱠᱷᱮᱞ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱕᱐ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱯᱩᱨᱟᱹᱣ ᱟᱨ ᱒᱕ ᱛᱚᱢᱚ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ᱾

ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱵᱩᱫᱫᱷᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱯᱟᱞᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱮᱡᱽ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱵᱷᱤᱭᱮᱱᱛᱤᱭᱮᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱫ ᱫᱚ ᱪᱚᱸᱱᱫᱚᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ᱾ ᱢᱚᱰᱟᱨᱱ ᱞᱟᱳ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱷᱤᱭᱮᱱᱛᱤᱭᱮᱱ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱦᱟᱦᱟᱲᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ᱾ ᱵᱷᱤᱭᱮᱱᱛᱤᱭᱮᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱷᱤᱭᱮᱪ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱫ ᱵᱮᱰᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱪᱭᱮᱱ (ᱞᱟᱳ ᱺ ຈັນທນ໌) ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱫ ᱪᱚᱸᱱᱫᱚᱱ ᱠᱟᱴᱷ᱾ ᱵᱷᱤᱭᱮᱱᱛᱤᱭᱮᱱ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱫ ᱪᱚᱸᱱᱫᱚᱱ ᱠᱟᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱮᱰᱟ᱾

ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱜᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱟ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱫ ᱫᱚ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ, ᱢᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱡᱟᱹᱛ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱥᱚᱞ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱫ ᱫᱚ "ᱪᱚᱸᱱᱫᱚᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ" ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱪᱮᱫᱟᱜ ᱥᱮ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ (ຈັນທຣ໌, ᱫᱚ Sanskrit चन्द्र ᱪᱟᱱᱽᱨᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ) ᱟᱨ "ᱪᱚᱱᱫᱚᱱ ᱠᱟᱴᱷᱟ" (ຈັນທນ໌, ᱫᱚ Sanskrit चन्दन ᱪᱚᱸᱱᱫᱚᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ) ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱚᱰᱟᱨᱱ ᱞᱟᱳ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱚ ຈັນ ᱪᱟᱱ ᱠᱚ ᱚᱞᱟ᱾

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

Buddha sculptures at Pha That Luang
Haw Phra Kaew or Temple of the Emerald Buddha

ᱚᱛᱱᱚᱜ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱵᱷᱤᱭᱮᱱᱛᱤᱭᱮᱱ ᱞᱟᱣᱚᱥ ᱟᱨ ᱛᱷᱟᱭᱞᱮᱱᱰ ᱵᱚᱰᱟᱨ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱢᱮᱠᱚᱝ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ ᱟᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱞᱳᱠᱮᱥᱟᱱ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱑᱗°᱕᱘'N ᱟᱨ ᱑᱐᱒°᱓᱖'E ᱟᱨ ᱫᱚᱨᱭᱟ ᱟᱴᱮᱫ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱑᱗᱔ ᱢᱤᱴᱟᱨ (᱕᱗᱐ ᱯᱷᱩᱴ) ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾[᱔] ᱵᱷᱤᱭᱮᱱᱛᱤᱭᱮᱱ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱓᱐ ᱠᱤᱢᱤ² ᱛᱮ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱶ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾

ᱦᱚᱭ‌ ᱦᱤᱥᱤᱫ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

Climate data for Vientiane
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.6
(96.1)
37.8
(100.0)
40.0
(104.0)
41.1
(106.0)
38.9
(102.0)
37.8
(100.0)
36.1
(97.0)
37.2
(99.0)
38.9
(102.0)
38.9
(102.0)
34.4
(93.9)
33.4
(92.1)
41.1
(106.0)
ᱮᱵᱷᱚᱨᱮᱡᱽ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ (Average high) °C (°F) 28.4
(83.1)
30.3
(86.5)
33.0
(91.4)
34.3
(93.7)
33.0
(91.4)
31.9
(89.4)
31.3
(88.3)
30.8
(87.4)
30.9
(87.6)
30.8
(87.4)
29.8
(85.6)
28.1
(82.6)
31.1
(88.0)
ᱮᱵᱷᱚᱨᱮᱡᱽ ᱞᱟᱛᱟᱨ (Average low) °C (°F) 16.4
(61.5)
18.5
(65.3)
21.5
(70.7)
23.8
(74.8)
24.6
(76.3)
24.9
(76.8)
24.7
(76.5)
24.6
(76.3)
24.1
(75.4)
22.9
(73.2)
19.3
(66.7)
16.7
(62.1)
21.8
(71.2)
Record low °C (°F) 0.0
(32.0)
7.6
(45.7)
12.1
(53.8)
17.1
(62.8)
20.0
(68.0)
21.1
(70.0)
21.2
(70.2)
21.1
(70.0)
21.2
(70.2)
12.9
(55.2)
8.9
(48.0)
5.0
(41.0)
0.0
(32.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 7.5
(0.30)
13.0
(0.51)
33.7
(1.33)
84.9
(3.34)
245.8
(9.68)
279.8
(11.02)
272.3
(10.72)
334.6
(13.17)
297.3
(11.70)
78.0
(3.07)
11.1
(0.44)
2.5
(0.10)
᱑,᱖᱖᱐.᱕
(65.37)
Average rainy days 1 2 4 8 15 18 20 21 17 9 2 1 118
Average relative humidity (%) 70 68 66 69 78 82 82 84 83 78 72 70 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 254.4 214.3 216.8 226.3 207.1 152.9 148.6 137.1 137.7 247.7 234.3 257.5 ᱒,᱔᱓᱔.᱗
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization,[᱕] Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes 1907–1990)[᱖]
Source #2: NOAA (sun and humidity)[᱗]

ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤᱟᱹᱨᱤ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱦᱮᱡᱽᱥᱮᱱ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱧᱮᱞ ᱡᱚᱝ ᱡᱟᱜᱟ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱩᱪᱷᱟᱹᱱ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

Healthcare[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱟᱨᱦᱚ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱢᱮ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱟᱨᱦᱚ ᱯᱟᱨᱦᱟᱣ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  • Askew, Marc, William Stewart Logan, and Colin Long. Vientiane: Transformations of a Lao Landscape. London: Routledge, 2007. ISBN 978-0-415-33141-8
  • Sharifi et al., Can master planning control and regulate urban growth in Vientiane, Laos?. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.07.014
  • Flores, Penelope V. Good-Bye, Vientiane: Untold Stories of Filipinos in Laos. San Francisco, CA: Philippine American Writers and Artists, Inc, 2005. ISBN 978-0-9763316-1-2
  • Renaut, Thomas, and Arnaud Dubus. Eternal Vientiane. City heritage. Hong Kong: Published by Fortune Image Ltd. for Les Editions d'Indochine, 1995.
  • Schrama, Ilse, and Birgit Schrama. Buddhist Temple Life in Laos: Wat Sok Pa Luang". Bangkok: Orchid Press, 2006. ISBN 978-974-524-073-5
  • Women's International Group Laos. Vientiane Guide. Vientiane: Women's International Group, 1993.

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. Lao Statistics Bureau (21 ᱚᱠᱴᱚᱵᱚᱨ 2016). "Results of Population and Housing Census 2015" (PDF). Retrieved 8 ᱡᱟᱱᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ 2018. 
  2. United Nations Statistics Division. "Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). Retrieved 9 ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2007. 
  3. Wells, John (3 ᱮᱯᱨᱤᱞ 2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0. 
  4. "Geographic coordinates of Vientiane, Laos. Latitude, longitude, and elevation above sea level of Vientiane". dateandtime.info.  Unknown parameter |সংগ্রহের-তারিখ= ignored (help)"Geographic coordinates of Vientiane, Laos. Latitude, longitude, and elevation above sea level of Vientiane". dateandtime.info.  Unknown parameter |সংগ্রহের-তারিখ= ignored (help)
  5. "World Weather Information Service - Vientiane (1951-2000)". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 14 ᱢᱮ 2010. 
  6. "Klimatafel von Vientiane (Viangchan) / Laos" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 23 ᱡᱟᱱᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ 2016. 
  7. "Vientiane Climate Normals 1961−1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 29 ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2013.