ᱵᱷᱩᱴᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱠᱚ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
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ᱠᱟ.ᱣᱰᱤ ᱠᱮᱱᱮᱴᱮᱡ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱤᱥ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱠᱟ.ᱣᱰᱤ ᱩᱛᱱᱟ.ᱣ ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱨᱟᱜ-ᱨᱟᱱᱤᱡ ᱟᱨ ᱱᱟᱨᱥ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱠᱟ.ᱢᱤ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱦᱤᱥ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱫᱟ'ᱶ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ, ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱨᱮᱦᱚ ᱵᱟ.ᱭ ᱵᱟ.ᱭ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱤᱫᱤᱭᱮᱱᱟ | 1989 ᱦᱟ.ᱵᱤᱡ ᱟᱢᱫᱟᱡᱽ 10 ᱦᱩᱥ ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱠᱟ.ᱢᱤᱭᱟ. ᱜᱮ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱟᱨ 1989 ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱞᱟᱯᱷᱟᱝ ᱥᱤᱣᱤᱞ ᱥᱟᱨᱵᱷᱤᱥ ᱵᱤᱱᱤᱰ ᱥᱱᱟᱛᱚᱠ ᱨᱮᱦᱚ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱜᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ | ᱟᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱠᱮᱨᱤᱭᱟᱨ ᱮᱝᱜᱟᱛᱚᱜ ᱚᱠᱛᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱯᱮ ᱪᱟᱱᱫᱚ ᱡᱤᱨᱟ.ᱣ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱦᱚ' ᱟᱝᱜᱚᱪ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ' ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱱᱤᱭᱟ. ᱠᱚ ᱚᱠᱛᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱯᱩᱨᱟ. ᱠᱩᱲᱟ.ᱭ ᱦᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱮᱢ ᱚᱪᱚᱜ-ᱟ | ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱮᱨᱮᱞ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱚᱨᱥᱚᱝ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ' ᱠᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱦᱚ, ᱮᱛᱦᱚᱵ ᱟᱨ ᱛᱟᱞᱱᱟ ᱛᱷᱚᱠ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱟᱥᱲᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱩᱲᱤ   ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱠᱩᱞ ᱚᱪᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ' ᱱᱟ |

ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱟ.ᱨᱤ ᱦᱤᱥ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

2008 ᱟᱨ 2011 ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱨᱮ, ᱛᱟᱥᱚᱜᱽᱯᱟ, ᱥᱮ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟ. ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱵᱟ.ᱭᱥᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱨᱟ.ᱥᱤᱭᱟ. ᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱪᱱᱟᱣ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱟᱦᱟᱞ, ᱟᱰᱤ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱵᱤᱥᱟ.ᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ' ᱠᱟᱱᱟ | ᱢᱟᱱᱟ ᱵᱟᱨᱚᱱ ᱨᱮᱛᱟᱜ ᱠᱷᱟᱴᱚ ᱵᱟᱵᱦᱚ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱟ.ᱣᱰᱤ ᱩᱛᱱᱟ.ᱣ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱱᱟᱣ ᱵᱟᱨᱟᱣ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱚᱠᱩᱞᱟ.ᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱨ ᱩᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ' ᱠᱟᱱ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱱᱟᱣ ᱟ.ᱱ ᱟ.ᱨᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱝᱜᱚᱪ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱟᱱᱟ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ | ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱛ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱟ.ᱢᱤ ᱠᱟᱨᱤᱜᱚᱞ ᱵᱤᱱᱳᱰᱟ.ᱣ ᱛᱮ ᱮᱥᱠᱟᱨ ᱜᱮ ᱠᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱦᱚ' ᱵᱟᱨᱭᱟ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱟᱣ ᱚᱪᱚᱜ ᱠᱤᱱ ᱵᱤᱱᱟ. ᱦᱟᱯᱟᱨᱟᱣ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱲᱟᱜ ᱟᱜ ᱠᱤᱱᱟ., ᱚᱱᱟ ᱤᱭᱟ.ᱛᱮ 2011 ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟ. ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱱᱟᱣ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱤᱞᱚᱢ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ, ᱢᱩᱞ ᱨᱩᱯ ᱛᱮ 2008 ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ ᱱᱤᱴ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ | ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱟ.ᱢᱤ ᱠᱟ.ᱨᱜᱚᱞ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱤᱱᱩᱰᱟ.ᱣ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱟᱦᱟ ᱚᱠᱛᱮ ᱨᱮ ᱚᱠᱚᱭ ᱜᱮ ᱵᱟᱪᱱᱟᱣᱚᱜ ᱚᱪᱚᱜ ᱠᱚ ᱜᱮ ᱦᱤᱥ ᱵᱟᱠᱚ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ, ᱢᱮᱱ ᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱫᱚᱥᱟᱨ ᱫᱷᱟᱣ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ 90% ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱚᱨᱡᱚ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ | ᱮᱱᱨᱮ ᱦᱚ' ᱠᱟ.ᱢᱤ-ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱱᱟᱣ ᱚᱪᱚᱣᱟ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱢ ᱜᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ' ᱠᱟᱱᱟ (ᱭᱩ. ᱮᱱ. ᱮᱪ. ᱥᱤ. ᱟᱨ. ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟ. ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱱᱟᱣ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱟᱲᱟᱝ 14% ᱦᱤᱥ ᱜᱮ ᱯᱟᱦᱤᱞ ᱨᱮ), ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟ. ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱵᱟᱪᱷᱱᱟᱣ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱟᱨᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱵᱷᱚᱴ ᱮᱢᱚᱜ ᱠᱚᱜᱮ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ' ᱠᱟᱱᱟ | 2011 ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ ᱛᱷᱚᱠ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱷ ᱵᱷᱚᱴ ᱮᱢᱚᱜ ᱨᱮ, ᱵᱷᱚᱴ ᱮᱢᱚᱜ ᱟᱢᱫᱟᱡᱽ 50% ᱦᱤᱥ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ |[᱑][᱒][᱓][᱔][᱕]। ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱩᱠᱞᱤ ᱨᱟᱠᱟᱵ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱡᱮ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱮᱣᱟ ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ ᱠᱚᱴᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱧᱟᱢᱟ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱛᱮ, ᱟᱨ ᱢᱟᱲᱟᱜᱴᱝ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱵᱷᱚᱴ ᱮᱢᱚᱜ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱡᱟᱨᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱤᱥ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ ᱢᱟ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱡᱤᱱᱤᱥ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱠᱩᱨᱩᱢᱩᱴᱩ ᱭᱮᱱᱟ |

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

1980 ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱜᱮᱞᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱠᱚ ᱪᱟᱥᱚᱜ ᱠᱟ.ᱢᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱥᱮᱬᱟ ᱮᱱᱮᱢ ᱠᱚ ᱯᱩᱨᱟ.ᱣ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ, ᱡᱮᱞᱟᱠᱟ ᱱᱩᱠᱩ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱮᱣᱟ ᱯᱟᱦᱴᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱱᱟᱝᱜᱽᱨᱟᱦᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱮᱯᱟᱨ-ᱵᱟ.ᱱᱤᱡᱽ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱡᱟᱭᱜᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱮᱨᱮᱞ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱤᱥ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ| 1980 ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱜᱮᱞ ᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ, ᱜᱮᱞ ᱢᱚᱬᱮ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱛᱩᱨᱩᱭ ᱜᱮᱞ ᱩᱢᱟ.ᱨ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱵᱷᱩᱴᱟᱱᱤ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱩᱫᱽ ᱨᱮ 95 ᱦᱤᱥ ᱪᱟᱥ ᱠᱟ.ᱢᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ, ᱱᱷᱟᱛᱮ ᱤᱱᱟ. ᱩᱢᱟ.ᱨ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱮᱠᱮᱱ 78 ᱦᱤᱥ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱮᱨᱮᱞ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ' ᱠᱟᱱᱟ | ᱩᱯᱨᱤᱭᱟ ᱧᱮᱧᱮᱞᱤᱭᱟ. ᱠᱚ ᱫᱷᱟᱭᱟᱱ ᱠᱚ ᱮᱢᱟᱣ ᱫᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱡᱮ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱠᱚ ᱪᱟᱥ ᱠᱟ.ᱢᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱮᱨᱮᱞ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱦᱩᱥ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱟ| ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱜᱩᱴ, ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱠᱚ ᱠᱟ.ᱣᱰᱤ ᱥᱟᱨᱵᱷᱟᱨ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱯᱟᱥᱴᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱜᱮ ᱦᱮᱨᱮᱞ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱟ ᱵᱟᱨᱟ ᱵᱟᱨᱤ ᱜᱮ ᱠᱟᱢᱤᱭᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ' ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ| ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱜᱩᱴ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱠᱚ ᱠᱟ.ᱢᱤ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜ 4 ᱦᱤᱥ ᱥᱩᱢᱩᱝ ᱵᱮᱠᱟᱨ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱱᱷᱟᱛᱮ 10 ᱦᱩᱥ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱦᱮᱨᱮᱞ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ | ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨ ᱜᱮ ᱟᱥᱚᱠᱟᱭ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱛᱩ ᱴᱚᱞᱟ ᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱟ ᱟᱨᱤ ᱠᱟ.ᱶᱵᱤ ᱟᱨᱤ ᱚᱵᱚᱥᱛᱟ ᱥᱩᱫᱷᱨᱟ.ᱣ ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱤᱫ 1981 ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱷᱩᱴᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱡᱟ.ᱛᱨᱤᱭᱟ. ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱜᱟᱶᱛᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱱᱫᱷᱟᱣ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱ | ᱜᱟᱶᱛᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱵᱟᱱᱫᱷᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱷᱲᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱞᱟ.ᱭ ᱡᱟᱦᱤᱨ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ ᱡᱮ,.ᱚᱱᱰᱮᱱ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱠᱚ ᱜᱷᱟᱱᱮ ᱜᱷᱟ.ᱲᱤ ᱥᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱟ.ᱭᱫᱟ.ᱨᱤ ᱞᱟ.ᱜᱩᱫ ᱵᱟᱠᱚ ᱥᱮᱵᱟ.ᱲ ᱚᱪᱚᱜ -ᱟ, ᱪᱮᱫᱟᱜ ᱥᱮ ᱵᱷᱩᱴᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱢᱟᱭᱡᱤᱣ ᱠᱚ के बराबर ᱯᱟ.ᱦᱤᱞ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱮ " ᱨᱟᱡᱟᱨᱤ ,ᱠᱟᱣᱰᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱟ ᱟᱨᱤ ᱯᱟᱥᱴᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱮᱨᱮᱞ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱦᱤᱥ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜ-ᱟ" |

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. "Freedom in the World 2011 - Bhutan". UNHCR Refworld online. Freedom House. 2011-05-12. Retrieved 2011-05-20. 
  2. Tshering, Dechen (2011-04-16). "Tshogpa dearth for real". Kuensel. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  3. Namgyal, Gyembo (2011-05-03). "Where have the tshogpas gone?". Bhutan Observer online. Retrieved 2011-05-21. 
  4. Sherpa, Sherpem (2011-01-21). Baerthlein, Thomas, ed. "Bhutan holds first-ever local government elections". Deutsche Welle online. Retrieved 2011-05-20. 
  5. "When the candidates are illiterate". Bhutan Broadcasting Service. 2010-09-28. Retrieved 2011-05-20.