ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ

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ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ
ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱡᱤᱥᱩ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱞᱟᱦᱟ ᱟᱹᱱᱢᱟᱹᱱ

᱔᱒᱓ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱵᱟᱝᱠᱷᱟᱡ ᱔᱘᱐ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ

ᱵᱚᱸᱜᱟ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱡᱤᱥᱩ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱞᱟᱦᱟᱨᱮ ᱟᱹᱱᱢᱟᱹᱱ

᱓᱔᱓ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱵᱟᱝᱠᱷᱟᱡ ᱔᱐᱐ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ

ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱧᱤᱛᱩᱢ ᱥᱤᱫᱫᱷᱟᱨᱛᱷᱚ ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ, ᱥᱟᱠᱠᱚᱢᱩᱱᱤ
ᱜᱚᱜᱚ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱢᱟᱭᱟ ᱫᱮᱵᱤ

ᱥᱩᱫᱫᱷᱚᱫᱷᱚᱱ

ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ[1] ᱟᱨ ᱥᱟᱹᱫᱷᱩ ᱦᱚᱲᱮ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱡᱟᱸᱦᱟᱸᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱤᱠᱷᱱᱟᱹᱛᱛᱮ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱫᱫᱷᱟᱨᱛᱷᱚ ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ, ᱥᱟᱠᱠᱚᱢᱩᱱᱤ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱥᱮ ᱮᱠᱮᱱ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱧᱤᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱮᱸᱦᱚᱸᱠᱚ ᱧᱩᱢᱮ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ᱾

ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱢᱩᱬᱩᱛ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱭ᱾ ᱫᱮᱵ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ[2] ᱧᱟᱢ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱛ ᱡᱟᱸᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢᱮ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ᱾ ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ ᱫᱟᱬᱟ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱡᱟᱸᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢᱮ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ᱾ ᱟᱭᱟᱜ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱᱨᱮ ᱡᱟᱸᱦᱟᱸᱠᱚ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱟᱭ ᱞᱟᱹᱭ ᱥᱚᱫᱚᱨ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱟ ᱚᱱᱟᱠᱳᱜᱮ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢᱛᱮ ᱚᱞ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱛᱨᱤᱯᱤᱴᱚᱠ ᱚᱞ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾

ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚᱣᱭᱟᱜ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱮᱛᱦᱚᱵ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱩᱛᱟᱹᱨ ᱯᱩᱨᱩᱵ ᱥᱮᱡ ᱠᱳᱯᱤᱞᱟᱵᱳᱥᱛᱩ ᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢᱨᱮᱱ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱥᱩᱫᱫᱷᱚᱫᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱹᱱᱤ ᱢᱟᱭᱟᱫᱮᱵᱤ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱠᱚᱲᱟ ᱜᱤᱫᱨᱟᱹᱭ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ᱾ ᱥᱟᱠᱠᱚ ᱵᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱛᱭᱟᱹᱣ ᱦᱤᱥᱟᱹᱵᱛᱮ ᱢᱟᱭᱟᱫᱮᱵᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱞᱟᱡ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱤᱫᱨᱟᱹᱭ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱩᱱ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱚᱡ ᱡᱟᱸᱭᱟᱺᱭ ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱡ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱛᱟᱹᱠᱩ ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱜ ᱰᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱞᱩᱢᱵᱤᱱᱤ ᱧᱤᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱟᱛᱚᱨᱮ ᱥᱟᱨᱡᱚᱢ ᱫᱟᱨᱮ ᱵᱩᱴᱟᱹᱨᱮ ᱜᱤᱫᱨᱟᱹᱭ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱞᱤᱫᱤᱭᱟ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱜᱤᱫᱨᱟᱹ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱮᱭᱟᱭ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱸᱨᱮ ᱢᱟᱭᱟᱫᱮᱵᱤ ᱫᱚᱭ ᱵᱚᱸᱜᱟ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱜᱤᱫᱨᱟᱹ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱧᱤᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱦᱤᱞᱟᱹᱜ ᱚᱥᱤᱛ ᱧᱤᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱮᱱ ᱥᱟᱹᱫᱷᱩ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱜᱤᱫᱨᱟᱹ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱠᱮᱛᱮᱜ ᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱞᱮᱫᱟ ᱱᱩᱭ ᱜᱤᱫᱨᱟᱹ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱟᱹᱫᱷᱩᱭ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ-ᱟ[3] ᱡᱟᱸᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱫᱤᱱ ᱦᱤᱞᱟᱹᱜ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤᱭ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱟ᱾ ᱟᱫᱚ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱜᱤᱫᱨᱟᱹᱣᱭᱟᱜ ᱧᱤᱛᱩᱢᱠᱩ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ ᱥᱤᱫᱫᱷᱟᱨᱛᱷᱚ᱾ ᱟᱡ ᱜᱚᱜᱚᱣᱭᱟ ᱜᱚᱪ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱠᱟᱹᱠᱤ ᱜᱚᱜᱚ ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱳᱢᱤ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱦᱟᱨᱟ ᱵᱩᱨᱩ ᱞᱮᱱᱛᱮᱭ ᱩᱱᱤᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱫᱫᱷᱟᱨᱛᱷᱚ ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ ᱦᱚᱸᱠᱩ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱭ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ᱾ ᱠᱟᱹᱴᱤᱡ ᱠᱷᱚᱱᱜᱮ ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱟᱥᱮᱭᱟᱡ ᱡᱩᱫᱟᱹᱜᱮᱭ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱜᱷᱟᱸᱨᱚᱡ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱢᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱠᱟᱱᱛᱟᱭᱟ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱑᱖ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟᱨᱮᱜᱮ ᱡᱚᱥᱳᱫᱷᱚᱨᱟ ᱧᱤᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱱᱟᱯᱟᱭ ᱠᱩᱲᱤ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱯᱞᱟ ᱠᱮᱫᱤᱭᱟ᱾ ᱩᱱᱠᱤᱱᱨᱮᱱ ᱨᱟᱦᱩᱞ ᱧᱤᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱮᱱ ᱠᱚᱲᱟ ᱜᱤᱫᱨᱟᱹᱭ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱹᱠᱤᱱᱟ᱾ ᱟᱭᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱛᱚᱭᱟᱜ ᱜᱮ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸ ᱛᱩᱞᱩᱡ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱜᱳᱣᱛᱚᱢ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱫᱩᱭᱟᱹᱨ ᱵᱟᱹᱜᱤ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱡ ᱮ ᱩᱰᱩᱜᱽ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ᱾

ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱩᱰᱩᱜᱽ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱡ ᱮ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ ᱜᱚᱴᱟ ᱴᱟᱸᱰᱤᱸᱜᱮ ᱫᱩᱠᱷ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱩᱠᱷ᱾ ᱩᱱ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱚᱡ ᱮ ᱵᱩᱡᱷᱦᱟᱹᱣ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤᱨᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱱ ᱫᱩᱞᱟᱹᱛ ᱥᱮ ᱨᱟᱡᱽ ᱫᱚ ᱪᱮᱫᱜᱮ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ᱾ ᱚᱱᱚ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱢᱚᱬᱮ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱫᱷᱮᱱ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱡ ᱫᱮᱵ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱᱮ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱱᱮᱭ ᱵᱩᱡᱷᱟᱣ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ᱾ ᱟᱫᱚ ᱟᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱫᱷᱚᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚᱨᱮ ᱡᱟᱸᱦᱟᱸᱭᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮᱭ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱞᱮᱫ ᱠᱳᱣᱟ ᱥᱮ ᱡᱟᱸᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱸᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱩᱝᱠᱩᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱟᱡ ᱮ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱟᱠᱟᱛ ᱫᱮᱵ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱᱮ ᱞᱟᱹᱭ ᱥᱚᱫᱚᱨ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ᱾ ᱚᱝᱠᱟᱛᱮᱜᱮ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱮ ᱫᱷᱩᱨᱟᱹᱣᱱᱟ᱾ ᱩᱝᱠᱩ ᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹᱛᱮᱜᱮ ᱯᱟᱹᱦᱤᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱥᱟᱶᱦᱮᱫ ᱮ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ᱾ ᱮᱝᱠᱟ ᱮᱝᱠᱟ ᱛᱮᱜᱮ ᱟᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱥᱟᱶᱦᱮᱫ ᱞᱟᱹᱴᱩ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱩᱦᱚᱸ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫᱚ ᱛᱮᱜᱮᱠᱩ ᱫᱷᱩᱨᱟᱹᱣᱱᱟ᱾ ᱫᱮᱵ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱟᱡ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱥᱩᱫᱫᱷᱚᱫᱷᱚᱱ ᱠᱳᱯᱤᱞᱟᱵᱳᱥᱛᱩᱨᱮ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱱᱮᱣᱛᱟᱭ ᱮᱢᱟᱣ ᱫᱤᱭᱟ᱾ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚᱨᱮᱱ ᱜᱤᱫᱨᱟᱹ ᱨᱟᱦᱩᱞ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱦᱚᱲᱠᱩ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱟᱡᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱫᱤᱠᱠᱷᱟᱹᱭ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ᱾

ᱚᱱᱚ ᱯᱮ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱨᱳᱦᱤᱱᱤ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱫᱟᱜ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱟᱵᱷᱟᱹᱜᱤ ᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱥᱟᱠᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱠᱳᱞᱤᱭᱳ ᱠᱩᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱤᱵᱟᱹᱫ ᱦᱩᱭᱞᱮᱱᱟ᱾ ᱟᱫᱚ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱵᱤᱵᱟᱹᱫ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚᱭ ᱢᱤᱴᱢᱟᱴ ᱠᱟᱛ ᱛᱟᱹᱠᱩᱣᱭᱟ᱾ ᱤᱱᱟᱹ ᱠᱤᱪᱷᱩᱫᱤᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢᱜᱮ ᱟᱡ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱥᱩᱫᱫᱷᱚᱫᱷᱚᱱᱮ ᱵᱚᱸᱜᱟ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱞᱮᱱ ᱠᱷᱟᱡ ᱟᱡ ᱠᱟᱹᱠᱤ ᱜᱚᱜᱚ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱥᱟᱶᱦᱮᱫ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫᱚᱜ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱸᱥ ᱮ ᱵᱟᱰᱟᱭ ᱚᱪᱚ ᱠᱮᱫᱮᱭᱟ᱾ ᱯᱟᱹᱦᱤᱞ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱵᱟᱭ ᱨᱟᱡᱤ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱨᱮᱦᱚᱸ ᱛᱚᱭᱚᱢᱛᱮ ᱠᱩᱥᱤᱛᱮᱭ ᱨᱟᱹᱡᱤᱭᱮᱱ ᱠᱷᱟᱡ ᱯᱟᱹᱦᱤᱞ ᱫᱷᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱠᱩᱲᱤ ᱜᱤᱫᱨᱟᱹᱠᱩ ᱥᱮ ᱟᱭᱳ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱩᱦᱚᱸᱭ ᱥᱟᱶᱦᱮᱫ ᱨᱮᱭ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱠᱮᱛ ᱠᱳᱭᱟ᱾ ᱚᱫᱚ ᱮᱝᱠᱟ ᱮᱝᱠᱟ ᱛᱮᱜᱮ ᱜᱚᱴᱟ ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛ ᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱟᱭᱟᱜ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢᱮ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱤᱫᱤ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ᱾

ᱟᱨᱦᱚᱸ ᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣᱢᱮ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  • Bechert, Heinz, সম্পাদক (১৯৯৬)। When Did the Buddha Live? The Controversy on the Dating of the Historical Buddha। Delhi: Sri Satguru।
  • Ñāṇamoli, Bhikku (১৯৯২)। The Life of the Buddha According to the Pali Canon (3rd সংস্করণ)। Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society।
  • Wagle, Narendra K (১৯৯৫)। Society at the Time of the Buddha (2nd সংস্করণ)। Popular Prakashan। আইএসবিএন 978-817154553-7।
  • Rahula, Walpola (১৯৭৪)। What the Buddha Taught (2nd সংস্করণ)। New York: Grove Press।
  • Vetter, Tilmann (১৯৮৮)। The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism। Brill।
  • Kalupahana, David J. (১৯৯৪)। A history of Buddhist philosophy। Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass।
  • Robinson, Richard H.; Johnson, Willard L; Wawrytko, Sandra A; DeGraff, Geoffrey (১৯৯৬)। The Buddhist Religion: A Historical Introduction। Belmont, CA: Wadsworth।

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. Baroni 2002, পৃ. 230।
  2. Guang Xing (2005). The Three Bodies of the Buddha: The Origin and Development of the Trikaya Theory. Oxford: Routledge Curzon: pp.1 and 85
  3. Narada 1992, পৃ. 9–12।