ᱥᱟᱦᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ, ᱨᱟᱲᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
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ᱥᱟᱦᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ
شاہ مکھی
Shahmukhi nastaliq.png
"ᱥᱟᱦᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ" ᱚᱞ ᱱᱟᱥᱛᱟᱞᱤᱠ ᱥᱮ ᱥᱟᱦᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ ᱪᱤᱞᱤ ᱛᱮ
Type
ᱟᱵᱽᱡᱟᱫ
Languages ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ
Parent systems
ISO 15924 ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:ISO 15924 code, ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:ISO 15924 number

U+0600 to U+06FF
U+0750 to U+077F
U+08A0 to U+08FF
U+FB50 to U+FDFF

U+FE70 to U+FEFF

ᱥᱟᱦᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ (ᱜᱩᱨᱩᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ: ਸ਼ਾਹਮੁਖੀ, ᱥᱟᱦᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ: شاہ مکھی) ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱯᱷᱟᱨᱥᱤᱼᱟᱨᱚᱵᱤᱠ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ ᱢᱩᱥᱞᱟᱹ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱚᱞ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱮᱵᱦᱟᱨᱼᱟ[᱑][᱒][᱓][᱔] ᱾ ᱥᱟᱦᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱚᱡᱚᱢ ᱛᱤ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱞᱮᱸᱜᱟ ᱛᱤ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱠᱚ ᱚᱠᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱚᱞ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱵᱮᱵᱦᱟᱨᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱵᱟᱨᱭᱟ ᱚᱞ ᱛᱚᱦᱚᱨ (writing system) ᱢᱩᱫ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱚᱞ ᱛᱚᱦᱚᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱮᱴᱟᱜᱟᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱩᱨᱩᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱽ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱥᱤᱠᱷ ᱠᱚᱠᱚ ᱵᱮᱵᱦᱟᱨᱼᱟ[᱓][᱕][᱔]

ᱪᱤᱠᱤ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱨᱟᱦᱟ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱥᱟᱦᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱰᱟᱭᱟᱠᱨᱤᱴᱤᱠ ᱵᱮᱵᱦᱟᱨ
ᱪᱤᱱᱦᱟᱹ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱵᱮᱵᱦᱟᱨ IPA ᱱᱳᱴ
◌ٰ Khari Zabar a [ə] Used in certain loanwords such as ‘عیسیٰ’ (‘Jesus’)
◌َ Zabar a [ə]
◌ً Zabar Tanwīn -an [ən] Used for certain loanwords such as ‘فوراً’ (‘Immediately’)
◌ٓ Maddah ā [aː] Used only for Alif Maddah (ا + ٓ = آ), usually written
◌ِ Zer i [ɪ] Written underneath a letter
◌ٍ Zer Tanwīn in [ɪn] Used for certain loanwords, written underneath a letter
◌ُ Pesh u [u]
◌ٔ Hamza varied - Used on vowels to indicate a diphthong between two vowels, examples such as: ‘ئ’, ‘ۓ’, ‘ؤ‘, and أ usually written
◌ّ Tashdīd Geminite [.] Doubles a consonant, goes above the letter being doubled - کّ = kk

ᱠᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱠᱚ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱮᱞ. ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ[᱖] IPA Final glyph Medial glyph Initial glyph Isolated glyph ᱜᱩᱨᱩᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ
الف alifa /ɑː, ʔ, ∅/ ا ا , (medial)
بے /b/ بـ ب
پے /p/ پـ پ
تے /t/ تـ ت
ٹے ṭē /ʈ/ ٹـ ٹ
ثے s̱ē /s/ ثـ ث
جيم jīma /d͡ʒ/ جـ ج
چے /t͡ʃ/ چـ چ
وڈّی حے waḍḍi ḥē /ɦ/ حـ ح
᱑᱐ خے k͟hē /x/ خـ خ ਖ਼
᱑᱑ دال dāla /d/ د د
᱑᱒ ڈال ḍāla /ɖ/ ڈ ڈ
᱑᱓ ذال ẕāla /z/ ز ذ ਜ਼
᱑᱔ رے /r/ ر ر
᱑᱕ ڑے ṛē /ɽ/ ڑ ڑ
᱑᱖ زے /z/ ز ز ਜ਼
᱑᱗ ژے zhē /ʒ/ ژ ژ -
᱑᱘ سین sīna /s/ سـ س
᱑᱙ شین shīna /ʃ/ شـ ش ਸ਼
᱒᱐ صاد ṣwāda /s/ صـ ص
᱒᱑ ضاد ẓwāda /z/ ضـ ض ਜ਼
᱒᱒ طوۓ t̤oᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Hamzaē /t/ طـ ط
᱒᱓ ظوۓ z̤oᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Hamzaē /z/ ظـ ظ ਜ਼
᱒᱔ عین ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Okinaaina /ɑː, oː, eː, ʔ, ʕ, ∅/ عـ ع
᱒᱕ غین g͟haina /ɣ/ غـ غ ਗ਼
᱒᱖ فے /f/ فـ ف ਫ਼
᱒᱗ قاف qāfa /q/ قـ ق ਕ਼
᱒᱘ کاف kāfa /k/ کـ ک
᱒᱙ گاف gāfa /ɡ/ گـ گ
᱓᱐ لام lāma /l/ لـ / لا ل
᱓᱑ لؕام ḷāma /ɭ/ لؕـ / لؕا لؕ ਲ਼
᱓᱒ میم mīma /m/ مـ م
᱓᱓ نون nūna /n, ɲ/ نـ ن
᱓᱔ ݨون ṇūṇa /ɳ/ ݨـ ݨ
᱓᱕ نون غنّہ nūn ġunnah /◌̃, ŋ/ ں

(ن٘)

,
᱓᱖ واؤ ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Hamzaoa /ʋ, uː, ʊ, oː, ɔː/ و و ,
᱓᱖ چھوٹی ہے
گول ہے
choṭī hē
gol hē
/ɦ, ɑː, e:/ ہـ ہ
᱓᱘ دو چشمی ہے do-cashmī hē /ʰ/ or /ʱ/ ھـ ھ varied / ੍ਹ
᱓᱙ ہمزہ hamzah /ʔ/, /∅/ ء ء -
᱔᱐ چھوٹی يے choṭī yē /j, iː, ɑː/ یـ ی ,
᱔᱑ وڈّی يے waḍḍi yē /ɛː, eː/ ے ,

No Punjabi words begin with ں‎, ھ‎, ڑ‎ or ے‎. The digraphs of aspirated consonants are as follows.

No. Digraph[᱗] Transcription[᱗] IPA Example
بھ bh [p], [b] بھاری
پھ ph [pʰ] پھول
تھ th [tʰ] تھم
ٹھ ṭh [ʈʰ] ٹھیس
جھ jh [t͡ʃ], [d͡ʒ] جھاڑی
چھ ch [t͡ʃʰ] چھوکرا
دھ dh [t], [d] دھوبی
ڈھ ḍh [ʈ], [ɖ] ڈھول
رھ rh [rʱ] No example?
᱑᱐ ڑھ ṛh [ɽʱ] کڑھنا
᱑᱑ کھ kh [kʰ] کھولنا
᱑᱒ گھ gh [k], [ɡ] گھبراہٹ
᱑᱓ لھ lh [lʱ] No example?
᱑᱔ مھ mh [mʱ] No example?
᱑᱕ نھ nh [nʱ] ننھا
᱑᱖ وھ wh [ʋʱ] No example?
᱑᱗ یھ yh [jʱ] No example?
  • ے‎ (Bari ye) is only found in the final position, when writing the sounds e (ਏ) or æ (ਐ), and in initial and medial positions, it takes the form of یَ‎.
  • Vowels are expressed as follows:
Romanization Final Middle Initial
a (ਅ) N/A ـَ اَ
ā (ਆ) ـَا، ـَی، ـَہ ـَا آ
i (ਇ) N/A ـِ اِ
ī (ਈ) ـِى ـِيـ اِی
e (ਏ) ـے‬ ـيـ اے
ai (ਐ) ـَے‬ ـَيـ اَے
u (ਉ) N/A ـُ اُ
ū (ਊ) ـُو اُو
o (ਓ) ـو او
au (ਔ) ـَو اَو

ᱜᱩᱨᱩᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱟᱦᱢᱩᱠᱷᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱩᱞᱟᱹ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱟ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

Shahmukhi1.JPG

ᱟᱨᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱢᱮ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. Evans, Lorna Priest; Malik, M.G. Abbas (1 ᱢᱮ 2019). "Unicode Proposal for ArLaam" (PDF). Unicode. Punjabi Parchar. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 ᱮᱯᱨᱤᱞ 2020. Retrieved 21 ᱮᱯᱨᱤᱞ 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  2. Singh Saini, Tejineder; Singh Lehal, Gurpreet; S Kalra, Virinder (ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ 2008). "Shahmukhi to Gurmukhi Transliteration System" (PDF). Aclweb.org. Coling 2008 Organizing Committee. p. 177. Archived from the original on 14 ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ 2017. Retrieved 21 ᱮᱯᱨᱤᱞ 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  3. ᱓.᱐ ᱓.᱑ Sharma, Saurabh; Gupta, Vishal (ᱢᱮ 2013). "Punjabi Documents Clustering System" (PDF). Journal of Emerging Technologies in Web Intelligence. 5 (2): 174. doi:10.4304/JETWI.5.2.171-187. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 ᱮᱯᱨᱤᱞ 2020. Retrieved 21 ᱮᱯᱨᱤᱞ 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  4. ᱔.᱐ ᱔.᱑ Dhanju, Kawarbir Singh; Lehal, Gurpreet Singh; Saini, Tejinder Singh; Kaur, Arshdeep (ᱚᱠᱴᱚᱵᱚᱨ 2015). "Design and Implementation of Shahmukhi Spell Checker" (PDF). Learnpunjabi.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2018. Retrieved 2 ᱢᱮ 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  5. Dorren, Gaston (2018). Babel: Around the World in Twenty Languages. Profile Books. ISBN 978-1782832508. 
  6. Delacy 2003, p. XV–XVI.
  7. ᱗.᱐ ᱗.᱑ "Urdu romanization" (PDF). The Library of Congress.