ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ, ᱨᱟᱲᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ

ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ( یاٗ,شِنْیٛا Ṣiṇyaá) ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ, ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱤᱞᱜᱤᱛ-ᱵᱚᱞᱴᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱩᱬᱩᱛ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱑,᱑᱔᱖,᱐᱐᱐ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱠᱚᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱜᱤᱞᱜᱤᱛ-ᱵᱚᱞᱴᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱚᱦᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱞᱟᱹᱴᱩ ᱜᱟᱶᱛᱟ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱟᱢᱚᱜᱼᱟ, ᱡᱟ.ᱢᱢᱩ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱟ.ᱥᱢᱤᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱜᱩᱨᱟᱭᱤᱡᱽ ᱵᱩᱨᱩ ᱟᱨ ᱞᱚᱫᱟᱠᱷ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱰᱨᱟᱥ ᱵᱩᱨᱩ ᱨᱮ ᱾ ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱵᱨᱚᱠᱥᱮᱴ ᱫᱚ ᱞᱚᱫᱟᱠᱷ ᱨᱮ, ᱠᱩᱸᱰᱟᱞ ᱥᱟᱦᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱡᱟᱫᱽ ᱠᱟᱥᱢᱤᱨ ᱨᱮ, ᱯᱟᱞᱩᱞᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱟᱣᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱪᱤᱛᱨᱚᱞ ᱨᱮ, ᱩᱥᱳᱡᱳ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱣᱟᱛ ᱵᱷᱮᱞᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱚᱞᱠᱳᱴᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱤᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱧᱟᱢᱚᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

Shina
ݜݨیاٗ
Ṣiṇyaá
The word Ṣiṇyaá written in the Arabic script in Nastaliq style.
ᱨᱟᱹᱲ[ʂinjaá]
ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱴᱷᱟᱶPakistan, India
ᱮᱞᱟᱠᱟGilgit-Baltistan, Kohistan, Drass, Gurez
ᱡᱟᱹᱛShina
ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ
Expression error: ᱵᱟᱝ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱴᱷᱤᱠᱚᱜᱠᱟᱱ ᱪᱤᱱᱦᱟᱹ ᱠᱚ "᱒".[᱑]
and Shina, Kohistani 458,000 (2018)[᱒]
ᱚᱞ ᱛᱚᱦᱚᱨ
Arabic script (Nastaʿlīq)[᱓]
ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱳᱰ
ISO 639-3Either:
scl – Standard Shina
plk – Kohistani Shina
ᱜᱽᱞᱚᱴᱴᱚᱞᱚᱜᱽshin1264  Shina[᱔]
kohi1248  Kohistani Shina[᱕]
Distribution of Shina language in Dark Orange
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

ᱠᱤᱪᱷᱩ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱟ ᱯᱨᱳᱱᱩ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ, ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱚᱞ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱡᱚᱡᱚᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱞᱜᱟ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱟᱨ ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱚᱞ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱹᱱᱩᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱥᱚᱠᱟᱭ ᱛᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱚᱞ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱰᱷᱮᱨ ᱛᱮᱫ ᱪᱤᱱᱟ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱠᱚ ᱚᱞᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱤᱭᱟ.[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ

ᱮᱛᱷᱱᱚᱞᱚᱡᱤ (᱒᱐᱑᱘) ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱳᱦᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱᱤ ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱵᱟᱱᱟᱨ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱑,᱑᱔᱖,᱐᱐᱐ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ, ᱚᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱩᱫᱽ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱟᱹᱥᱛᱤ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱷᱟᱭᱵᱟᱨ-ᱯᱟᱠᱷᱛᱩᱱᱠᱣᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱜᱤᱞᱜᱤᱛ-ᱵᱟᱞᱛᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱞᱟᱹᱴᱩ ᱜᱟᱶᱛᱟ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱟᱡᱟᱫᱽ ᱡᱟᱢᱩ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱥᱢᱤᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱱᱤᱞᱟᱢ ᱵᱷᱮᱞᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾

ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ

ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱞᱟᱹᱴᱩ ᱟᱹᱫᱤᱵᱟᱹᱥᱤ ᱜᱤᱞᱜᱤᱛ-ᱵᱟᱞᱴᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱤᱢᱟᱹ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱨᱜᱤᱞ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱒᱐᱑᱑ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱓᱒,᱒᱐᱐ ᱜᱚᱴᱟᱝ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ᱾

ᱚᱞᱚᱜ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱨᱩᱭᱟᱹᱲᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱠᱚᱢ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱩᱫᱽ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱝ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ, ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱛᱤᱱᱟᱹᱜ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱢᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱚᱞᱚᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱱᱤᱛ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱹᱝ ᱥᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱚᱞᱚᱜ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱹᱱᱩᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱑᱙᱖᱐ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱦᱟ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱨᱩᱭᱟᱹᱲᱚᱜ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱛᱷᱚᱠ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱦᱟ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱚᱨᱛᱷᱚᱜᱽᱨᱟᱯᱷᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱚᱞ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱟᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱚᱨᱛᱷᱚᱜᱽᱨᱟᱯᱷᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱚᱨᱛᱷ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱦᱟ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱚᱨᱛᱷᱚᱜᱽᱨᱟᱯᱷᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱᱮᱫ ᱮᱞᱟᱠᱟ ᱞᱚᱫᱟᱠᱷ ᱟᱨ ᱡᱟᱹᱢᱢᱩ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱹᱥᱢᱤᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱰᱨᱟᱥᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱵᱟᱨᱭᱟ ᱯᱨᱚᱡᱮᱠᱴ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ, ᱢᱤᱫ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱟᱨᱥᱳᱼᱟᱨᱚᱵᱤᱠ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱚᱥᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱮᱵᱽᱱᱟᱜᱽᱨᱤ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱾[᱖]

ᱪᱤᱱᱟ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱹᱝ ᱯᱟᱹᱛᱭᱟᱹᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱚᱞ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ:[᱗]

ᱯᱷᱚᱱᱚᱞᱚᱡᱤ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱨᱚᱲᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱰᱨᱟᱥᱤ, ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱨᱚᱲᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱠᱳᱦᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱦᱟ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱷᱚᱠ ᱫᱚ ᱞᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱮᱢ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱨᱟᱦᱟ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ

ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱢᱩᱬᱩᱛ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ:

/ɔ/ ᱵᱮᱜᱚᱨ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱥᱮ ᱱᱟᱥᱚᱞ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜ-ᱟ, ᱢᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱡᱚᱲᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱧᱟᱢᱚᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ /æ/ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱚᱱᱠᱟᱱ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱚᱱᱠᱟᱱ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱰᱤᱯᱷᱛᱚᱝᱥ

ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱞᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱚᱞ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱰᱤᱯᱛᱷᱚᱝ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ:

ᱠᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ

ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ, ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱦᱟ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱩᱪᱟᱹᱫ OIA ᱠᱚᱱᱥᱳᱱᱮᱸᱴ ᱠᱞᱮᱥᱴᱚᱨ ᱵᱟᱱᱟᱨ ᱜᱮ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱚᱠᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱟᱠᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱨᱟᱦᱟ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱱᱟᱨ ᱜᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱠᱳᱦᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱥᱢᱤᱴ (᱒᱐᱐᱘) Rajapurohit (2012, p. 33–34) ᱰᱮᱜᱮᱱᱚᱨ (᱒᱐᱐᱘, p. ᱑᱔) ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱯᱷᱳᱱᱮᱢ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱞᱤᱥᱴᱤ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱟ ᱾ ᱴᱚᱱ ᱥᱤᱱᱟ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱮᱭᱟ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨᱚᱜᱼᱟ: ᱥᱚᱢᱟᱱ, ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱞᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱮᱭᱟ ᱴᱚᱱ ᱮ ᱥᱚᱫᱚᱨᱟ:

"The" ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ level tone ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ "Do!"

ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱨᱟᱦᱟ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ ᱞᱟᱹᱱᱟᱹᱭ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜᱼᱟ, ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱢᱚᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ Thée ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, "Ape do?"

ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱫᱚᱥᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱦᱟ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ ᱞᱟᱹᱱᱟᱹᱭ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜᱼᱟ, ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱩᱛᱱᱟᱹᱣᱚᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ Theé ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ "ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜᱼᱟ".

ᱥᱟ.ᱠᱷᱭᱟ.ᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. "Shina". Ethnologue (in ᱟᱝᱜᱽᱨᱮᱡᱤ). Archived from the original on 2019-06-06. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
  2. "Shina, Kohistani". Ethnologue (in ᱟᱝᱜᱽᱨᱮᱡᱤ). Archived from the original on 2019-06-05. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
  3. "Ethnologue report for Shina". Ethnologue.
  4. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Shina". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. {{cite book}}: Unknown parameter |chapterurl= ignored (help)
  5. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kohistani Shina". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. {{cite book}}: Unknown parameter |chapterurl= ignored (help)
  6. Bashir 2003, pp. 823–25. The Devanagari scheme was proposed by Rajapurohit (1975, pp. 150–52; 1983, pp. 46–57; 2012, pp. 68–73). The latter two texts also present Perso-Arabic schemes, which in the 2012 book (pp. 15, 60) is given as primary
  7. https://omniglot.com/writing/shina.htm