ᱨᱚᱱᱮ ᱫᱮᱠᱟᱨᱛ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ, ᱨᱟᱲᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
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René Descartes
Frans Hals - Portret van René Descartes.jpg
ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱟᱨ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱓᱑ ᱢᱟᱨᱪ ᱑᱕᱙᱖(1596-03-31)
La Haye en Touraine, Touraine, Kingdom of France
ᱜᱩᱨ ᱑᱑ ᱯᱷᱮᱵᱽᱨᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ ᱑᱖᱕᱐ (᱕᱓ ᱵᱚᱭᱚᱥ)
Stockholm, Swedish Empire
ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢᱤᱭᱟᱹ French
ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ
Era 17th-century philosophy
Age of Enlightenment
Region Western philosophy
Dutch philosophy
French philosophy
School
Thesis Untitled LL.B. thesis (1616)
Main interests
Epistemology, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, cosmology
Notable ideas
ᱥᱩᱦᱤ
Firma Descartes.svg
Coat of arms
Blason de la famille Descartes.svg

ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Descartes ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Catholic philosophy

ᱨᱚᱱᱮ ᱫᱮᱠᱟᱨᱛ (ᱯᱷᱚᱨᱟᱥᱤ: René Descartes) ᱫᱚᱭ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱯᱜᱟᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱫᱟᱥᱚᱱᱤᱠ, ᱜᱚᱱᱤᱛ ᱵᱤᱥᱮᱥᱚᱜ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱤᱜᱜᱟᱱᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱭ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱚᱧᱪᱚ ᱫᱚᱥᱚᱠ ᱨᱮ ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱫᱟᱨᱥᱟᱱᱤᱠ ᱥᱤᱠᱨᱤᱛᱤ ᱮᱭ ᱦᱟᱢᱮᱴ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱟ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱚᱭᱤᱛᱛᱚ ᱫᱟᱨᱥᱚᱱᱤᱠ ᱮᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱵᱮᱜᱚᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱡᱮᱢᱮᱛᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱤᱡᱽ ᱜᱚᱱᱤᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱩᱯᱟᱭᱮ ᱩᱸᱰᱩᱠ ᱦᱟᱠᱟᱫᱟ᱾ ᱡᱟᱦᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱤᱡᱽ ᱜᱚᱱᱤᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱴᱠᱮᱴᱚᱬᱮ ᱦᱮᱢᱮᱛᱤ ᱫᱟᱨᱟᱭ ᱛᱮ ᱡᱩᱛᱩᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱱᱟᱶᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱱᱟᱶᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱨᱚᱱᱟᱭ ᱮᱢᱟ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ᱾

ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱹᱴᱤᱡᱽ ᱵᱮᱲᱟ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱫᱮᱠᱟᱨᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱕᱙᱖ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱓᱑ ᱢᱧᱨᱪ ᱨᱮ ᱞᱟ ᱨᱮᱭ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱦᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱟᱡᱽ ᱵᱟᱵᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱳᱣᱟᱠᱤᱢ ᱫᱮᱠᱟᱨᱛ, ᱟᱨ ᱟᱡᱽ ᱜᱚᱜᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱟᱱ ᱵᱨᱚᱥᱟᱨ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤᱨᱮᱱ ᱟᱨᱦᱚᱸ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱠᱚᱲᱟ ᱵᱚᱭᱦᱟ (ᱯᱤᱭᱮᱨ) ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱠᱩᱲᱤ ᱵᱚᱭᱦᱟ (ᱡᱟᱵ) ᱠᱤᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱵᱟ᱾ ᱟᱡᱽ ᱶᱟᱵᱟ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱩᱠᱤᱞ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱮᱢᱤᱥᱴᱮᱴ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱟᱵᱟᱭ, ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱪ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ-ᱮ ᱮᱢᱟ ᱮᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ᱾ ᱡᱟᱱ ᱵᱨᱚᱥᱟᱨ ᱫᱮᱠᱟᱨᱛ ᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱜᱮ ᱟᱨ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱜᱮᱭ ᱵᱚᱝᱜᱟ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱭᱮᱱᱟ᱾ ᱛᱟᱭᱤᱯ ᱫᱷᱟᱨᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱮᱠᱟᱨᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱡᱽᱨᱮᱱ ᱟᱨᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱟᱨ ᱵᱚᱭᱦᱟ ᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱛᱮ ᱞᱟ-ᱨᱮ ᱟᱡᱽ ᱵᱩᱰᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱨᱮᱜᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱭ ᱱᱟ᱾ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱜᱮ ᱤᱭᱚᱨᱚᱯ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱡᱟᱜᱟᱨᱮᱭ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾

ᱚᱱᱚᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

᱑᱐ ᱩᱢᱮᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱑᱖᱐᱖ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱫᱮᱠᱟᱨᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱞᱮᱡᱽ ᱨᱟᱭᱟᱞ ᱟᱸᱨᱤ-ᱞᱚ-ᱜᱨᱚ (ᱯᱷᱚᱨᱟᱥᱤ Collège Royal Henry-Le-Grand) ᱛᱮᱠᱚ ᱵᱷᱮᱦᱟ ᱷᱟᱠᱟᱫᱤᱭᱟ᱾ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱩᱱᱤ-ᱫᱚ ᱑᱖᱑᱔ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡᱽ-ᱮ ᱯᱟᱲᱷᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱑᱖᱑᱕ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱯᱚᱣᱟᱛᱤᱭᱮ (Poitiers) ᱠᱚᱞᱮᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱭ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱮᱱᱟ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱵᱟᱫᱮ ᱜᱮ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱚᱱᱩᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱮᱣᱟᱱᱤ ᱟᱭᱤᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱠᱟᱨᱚᱞᱮᱭᱟ (baccalauréat ᱩᱪᱪᱚ ᱢᱟᱫᱷᱚᱢᱤᱠ ᱥᱚᱱᱚᱫᱽ) ᱞᱟᱱᱥᱮᱥ-ᱮ ᱦᱟᱢᱮᱴ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱟ᱾

ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤ ᱡᱤᱭᱚᱱ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱦᱟᱨᱟ ᱛᱚᱨᱮ ᱩᱢᱮᱨ ᱨᱮᱜᱮ ᱢᱟᱸᱱᱢᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱚᱦᱟ ᱵᱤᱥᱥᱚ ᱶᱟᱰᱟᱭ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱤᱪᱪᱷᱟ ᱦᱮᱜ ᱟᱫᱤᱭᱟ᱾ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱜᱮ ᱵᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱛ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱜ ᱫᱮᱠᱟᱨᱛ ᱱᱤᱭᱟᱸ ᱜᱮᱭ ᱵᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱛ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ ᱡᱮ ᱤᱩᱨᱳᱯ ᱢᱚᱫᱷᱚᱡᱩᱜᱽ ᱠᱜᱚᱱ ᱡᱟᱦᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱨᱚᱡᱚᱱᱢᱚ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱯᱨᱚᱡᱚᱱᱢᱚ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡᱽ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱲᱜᱚᱸ ᱦᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱱᱤᱨᱵᱷᱚᱨ-ᱟ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱤᱫᱷᱟᱱᱛᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱟ ᱡᱮ ᱛᱚᱴᱟ ᱩᱭᱮᱳᱯ -ᱮ ᱫᱟᱲᱟ ᱯᱩᱨᱟᱹᱣ-ᱟ᱾ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱜᱮ ᱥᱚᱠᱨᱮᱴᱩᱥ ᱟᱛᱷᱮᱱᱥᱮᱨ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱜᱟᱞᱢᱟᱨᱟᱣ ᱜᱟᱞᱚᱡᱽ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱛᱮ ᱚᱠᱛᱚᱠᱚ ᱯᱟᱨᱚᱢ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱛᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱛᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱠᱚᱭ ᱷᱟᱢᱮᱴ ᱦᱟᱛᱟᱣ ᱮᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱨᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ᱾ ᱟᱨᱦᱚᱸ ᱡᱟᱹᱥᱛᱤ ᱵᱟᱰᱟᱭ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱛᱮ ᱥᱮᱱᱟᱵᱟᱦᱤᱱᱤ ᱪᱟᱠᱨᱤ ᱦᱚᱛᱮᱛᱮ ᱩᱭᱮᱳᱯ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱮᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱩᱡᱚᱜᱽ ᱦᱩᱭᱮᱱ ᱨᱟᱭᱟ᱾ ᱥᱮᱱᱟᱵᱟᱦᱤᱱᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱥᱦᱮ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱪᱮᱫᱠᱚᱭ ᱪᱮᱠᱟᱭᱮᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮᱱ ᱦᱩᱫᱤᱥ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ, ᱤᱠᱷᱟᱹᱱ ᱑᱖᱑᱙ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱮᱱᱟᱵᱟᱦᱤᱱᱤ ᱪᱟᱠᱨᱤ ᱫᱚᱭ ᱵᱟᱹᱜᱤᱭᱟᱫᱟ᱾

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

Notes[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. Although the uncertain authorship of this most iconic portrait of Descartes was traditionally attributed to Frans Hals, there is no record of their meeting. During the 20th century the assumption was widely challenged.[᱑]

Citations[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. Nadler, S., The Philosopher, The Priest, and The Painter (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013), pp. 174–198.
  2. Tad M. Schmaltz, Radical Cartesianism: The French Reception of Descartes, Cambridge University Press, 2002, p. 257.
  3. Fumerton, Richard (21 ᱯᱷᱮᱵᱽᱨᱩᱣᱟᱨᱤ 2000). "Foundationalist Theories of Epistemic Justification". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 19 ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ 2018. 
  4. Bostock, D., Philosophy of Mathematics: An Introduction, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, p. 43: "All of Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume supposed that mathematics is a theory of our ideas, but none of them offered any argument for this conceptualist claim, and apparently took it to be uncontroversial."
  5. Gutting, Gary (1999). Pragmatic Liberalism and the Critique of ModernityFree registration required. Cambridge University Press. p. 116. ISBN 9780521649735. Modernity begins with Descartes's mutation of Augustinianism. Taylor emphasizes that "Descartes is in many ways profoundly Augustinian". 
  6. Yolton, J. W., Realism and Appearances: An Essay in Ontology, Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 136.
  7. "The Correspondence Theory of Truth" (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
  8. Gaukroger, S., Descartes: An Intellectual Biography, Clarendon Press, 1995, p. 228.
  9. ᱙.᱐ ᱙.᱑ Étienne Gilson argued in La Liberté chez Descartes et la Théologie (Alcan, 1913, pp. 132–147) that Duns Scotus was not the source of Descartes's Voluntarism. Although there exist doctrinal differences between Descartes and Scotus "it is still possible to view Descartes as borrowing from a Scotist Voluntarist tradition" (see: John Schuster, Descartes-Agonistes: Physico-mathematics, Method & Corpuscular-Mechanism 1618–33, Springer, 2012, p. 363, n. 26).
  10. Marenbon, John (2007). Medieval Philosophy: an historical and philosophical introduction. Routledge. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-415-28113-3. 
  11. H. Ben-Yami, Descartes' Philosophical Revolution: A Reassessment, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 76.
  12. H. Ben-Yami, Descartes' Philosophical Revolution: A Reassessment, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 179: "[Descartes'] work in mathematics was apparently influenced by Viète's, despite his denial of any acquaintance with the latter’s work."
  13. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named CM2017
  14. "Jacques Bénigne Bossuet, French prelate and historian (1627–1704)" from the Encyclopædia Britannica, 10th Edition (1902)

Sources[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]