ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱮᱭ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
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ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱮᱭ ᱨᱮ ᱨᱚᱲᱚᱜᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ| [᱑] ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱮᱭ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟ. ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱟᱱᱚᱛ ᱢᱟᱞᱟᱭ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ,ᱚᱱᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱢᱟᱞᱟᱠᱮᱭᱱ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ | ᱚᱠᱟ ᱫᱯ ᱢᱟᱭᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱤᱱᱰᱚᱱᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱝᱜᱚᱪ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ | ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱮᱭ 1959 ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱟᱢᱵᱤᱫᱷᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱝᱜᱚᱪᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ 29 ᱥᱮᱯᱥᱴᱮᱵᱚᱨ 1959 ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱪᱟ.ᱞᱩᱭᱮᱱᱟ |[᱒]

ᱢᱟᱱᱚᱛ ᱢᱟᱞᱟᱭ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱢᱟᱞᱟᱭ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱫᱚ 1959 ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱟᱢᱵᱤᱫᱷᱟᱱ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱮᱭ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟ. ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱧᱩᱢ ᱵᱥᱦᱟᱞ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ | ᱟᱨ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱮᱱᱮᱢ ᱨᱟᱥᱴᱨᱤᱭᱚ ᱫᱚᱨᱥᱚᱱ ᱮᱢ.ᱟᱭ.ᱵᱤ. (ᱢᱮᱞᱟᱭᱩ ᱤᱥᱢᱟᱢ ᱵᱮᱨᱟᱡᱟ, 'ᱢᱟᱞᱟᱭ ᱤᱥᱞᱟᱢᱤ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱥᱟᱦᱤ') ᱨᱮ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ।[᱓] ᱟᱥᱚᱠᱟᱭ ᱛᱮ ᱢᱟᱞᱟᱭ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱷᱮᱱᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱡᱟᱦᱟ' ᱫᱚ ᱡᱟ.ᱛᱨᱤᱭᱟ. ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱩᱯ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱟ.ᱢᱤᱭᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱱ, ᱵᱟᱝ ᱱᱤᱴ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱢᱮᱱ ᱜᱟᱱᱚᱜ-ᱟ ᱟᱝᱜᱚᱪ ᱢᱟᱞᱟᱭ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱴᱮᱱ ᱡᱷᱟᱲᱟ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ , ᱡᱟᱦᱟ' ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱟᱞᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱤᱱᱰᱚᱱᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱟᱝᱜᱚᱪ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱥᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱧᱩᱢᱚᱜᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ |[᱔]

ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱮᱭ ᱢᱟᱞᱟᱭ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟ. ᱨᱚᱲ, ᱢᱮᱞᱟᱭᱩ ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱮᱭ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ (ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱮᱭ ᱢᱟᱞᱟᱭ), ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱵᱮᱵᱚᱦᱟᱨᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ | ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱟᱢᱫᱟᱡᱽ 266,000 ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ | ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱭ 84% ᱦᱤᱥ ᱟ.ᱲᱟ. ᱟᱝᱜᱚᱪ ᱥᱮ ᱢᱟᱱᱚᱛ ᱢᱟᱞᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱡᱚᱲᱟᱣ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ, ᱟᱫᱚᱢ ᱠᱚᱫᱚ 94% ᱟ.ᱲᱟ. ᱠᱮᱫᱟᱱ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱡᱚᱲᱟᱣ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱢᱮᱱ ᱛᱮᱠᱚ ᱞᱟ.ᱭᱟ |[᱕] ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱮᱭ ᱢᱟᱞᱟᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱢᱟᱞᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱟᱫᱚᱢ ᱦᱤᱥ ᱟ.ᱯᱟ.ᱱᱟ.ᱛ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱞᱮᱵᱩᱣᱟᱱ, ᱞᱤᱝᱵᱟᱝᱜᱽ ᱟᱨ ᱞᱟᱥ (ᱥᱟᱨᱣᱟᱠ) ᱡᱤᱞᱟ. ᱟᱨ ᱥᱤᱯᱤᱛᱟᱝ, ᱵᱭᱩᱯᱷᱚᱨᱴ, ᱠᱩᱣᱟᱞ ᱯᱮᱱᱭᱩ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱟᱯᱟᱨ (ᱥᱟᱵᱟ) ᱨᱮ ᱟᱫᱚᱢ ᱦᱩᱥ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱞᱤᱝᱜᱩᱣᱟ ᱯᱷᱨᱟᱝᱠᱟ ᱨᱩᱯ ᱨᱮ ᱨᱚᱲᱚᱜᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ | ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱮᱭ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱮᱭ ᱢᱟᱞᱟᱭ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱮᱵᱮᱦᱚᱨ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱜᱤᱨᱟ.ᱵᱟᱥ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱦᱩᱰᱤᱧ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱮ, ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱫᱚᱜ ᱦᱚᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ|[᱖]

ᱤᱝᱨᱟ.ᱡᱤ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱤᱝᱨᱟ.ᱡᱤ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱵᱟ.ᱲᱛᱤ ᱞᱟᱲᱪᱟᱲ ᱟᱨ ᱟ.ᱭᱫᱟ.ᱨᱤ ᱨᱩᱯ ᱛᱮ ᱛᱮ ᱦᱚ' ᱠᱟᱡᱟᱠ ᱞᱟᱲᱪᱟᱲᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱮᱭ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱦᱚᱛᱮ ᱛᱮ ᱨᱚᱲᱚᱜᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱢᱮᱱ ᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱝᱨᱟ.ᱡᱤ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱮᱠᱮᱱ ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ ᱟ.ᱠᱤᱞ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱟᱠᱚᱣᱟ | ᱢᱤᱫ ᱴᱮᱱ ᱫᱤᱱᱟ.ᱢ ᱤᱝᱨᱟ.ᱡᱤ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱮᱣᱨᱟ ᱥᱟᱠᱟᱢ ᱫᱚ, ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱤᱭᱚ ᱵᱩᱞᱮᱴᱤᱱ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ| 1985 ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱨᱮᱵᱟᱨᱭᱟ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱛᱟᱜ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ, ᱚᱱᱟ ᱢᱩᱫᱽ ᱨᱮ ᱮᱦᱚᱵ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱮ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱢᱟᱞᱟᱭ ᱟᱨ ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱤᱝᱨᱟ.ᱡᱤ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱯᱚᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱮᱰᱤᱭᱟᱢ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱟ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱩᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟ. ᱠᱚ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱤᱝᱨᱟ.ᱡᱤ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱮᱨᱮᱡ ᱟ.ᱠᱤᱞ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ| 2008 ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ, ᱱᱟᱣᱟ ᱮᱥ.ᱯᱤ.ᱮᱱ. 21 ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱮᱦᱚᱵ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ, ᱟᱨ ᱩᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ ᱟᱥᱲᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱤᱝᱨᱟ.ᱡᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱮᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱥᱨ ᱥᱟᱬᱮᱥ ᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣ ᱠᱚ ᱮᱦᱚᱵ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ, ᱚᱱᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱤᱝᱨᱟ.ᱡᱤ ᱯᱟ.ᱨᱥᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱨᱩᱱᱮᱭ ᱨᱮ ᱟ.ᱰᱤ ᱜᱮ ᱵᱟᱱᱫᱷᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ |[᱗]

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

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  2. Language and Literature Bureau Brief History Archived ᱒ ᱢᱮ ᱒᱐᱐᱗ at the Wayback Machine. - retrieved 20-04-2007
  3. Hussainmiya, B. A. (2001). The Brunei constitution of 1959: An inside history, 2nd ed. Bandar Seri Begawan: Brunei Press.
  4. Jones, G. M. (2016). Changing patterns of education in Brunei: How past plans have shaped future trends. In Noor Azam H-O., J. McLellan & D. Deterding (Eds.), The use and status of Language in Brunei Darussalam (pp. 267-278). Singapore: Springer.
  5. Ethnologue report for language code: kxd
  6. Clynes, A. (2014). Brunei Malay: An overview. In P. Sercombe, M. Boutin & A. Clynes (Eds.), Advances in research on linguistic and cultural practices in Borneo (pp. 153-200). Phillips, ME: Borneo Research Council.
  7. Deterding, D., & Salbrina, S. (2013). Brunei English: A New Variety in a Multilingual Society. Dordrecht: Springer.