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ᱠᱚᱨᱱᱟᱴᱚᱠ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱚ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ, ᱨᱟᱲᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ

ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱚᱨᱱᱟᱴᱚᱠ ᱨᱮ ᱓᱑ ᱜᱚᱴᱟᱝ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱩᱱᱭᱟᱹ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱠᱷᱚᱸᱰ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱛᱱᱚᱜ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱯᱮᱭᱟ ᱢᱩᱬ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ : ᱠᱚᱨᱟᱵᱚᱛᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱫᱚᱨᱭᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱨᱮ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ, ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱜᱷᱟᱴ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱭᱩᱠᱴ ᱵᱩᱨᱩ ᱢᱟᱞᱮᱱᱟᱰᱩ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ, ᱟᱨ ᱵᱚᱭᱟᱞᱩᱥᱤᱢ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱚᱠᱠᱚᱱ ᱯᱟᱴᱷᱟᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱴᱟᱺᱰᱤ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱚᱨᱱᱟᱴᱚᱠ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱓᱑ ᱜᱚᱴᱟᱝ ᱦ᱘ᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱚ ᱾

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱢᱟᱭᱥᱩᱨ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱥᱟᱞ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱱᱟᱣᱟ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾

ᱠᱚᱨᱱᱟᱴᱚᱠ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱥᱟᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱱᱤᱛᱚᱜ ᱤᱫᱤ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱛᱤᱥ ᱢᱟᱭᱥᱩᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱩᱨᱜᱽ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱚᱫᱚ ᱵᱚᱢᱵᱮ, ᱦᱟᱭᱫᱽᱨᱟᱵᱟᱫᱽ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱚᱫᱽᱨᱟᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱚᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱱᱱᱚᱲ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱠᱟᱫᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱢᱟᱭᱥᱩᱨ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱮᱞ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ, ᱵᱮᱸᱜᱽᱞᱳᱨ, ᱠᱚᱞᱟᱨ, ᱛᱩᱢᱠᱩᱨᱩ, ᱢᱟᱱᱰᱭᱟ, ᱢᱟᱭᱥᱩᱨ, ᱦᱚᱥᱚᱱ, ᱪᱤᱠᱠᱚᱢᱚᱜᱚᱞᱩᱨᱩ, ᱥᱤᱵᱽᱢᱚᱜᱜᱟ, ᱪᱤᱛᱨᱚᱫᱩᱨᱜᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱚᱞᱞᱟᱨᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱙᱕᱓ ᱥᱟᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱚᱫᱽᱨᱟᱥ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱟᱭᱥᱩᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱚᱫᱚᱞ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ, ᱛᱤᱥ ᱟᱱᱫᱷᱨᱚ ᱯᱨᱚᱫᱮᱥ ᱱᱟᱣᱟ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱚᱫᱽᱨᱟᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾[᱑] ᱠᱩᱨᱜᱽ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱰᱟᱜᱩ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱟᱰᱟᱭᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ,[᱒] ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱠᱚᱱᱱᱚᱲ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱚᱫᱽᱨᱟᱥ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱚᱫᱽᱨᱟᱥ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ, ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱠᱚᱱᱱᱚᱲ, ᱫᱷᱟᱨᱣᱟᱲ, ᱵᱮᱞᱜᱟᱵᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱤᱡᱚᱭᱯᱩᱨᱟᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱚᱢᱵᱮ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱚᱫᱚᱞ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱦᱟᱭᱫᱽᱨᱟᱵᱟᱫᱽ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱤᱫᱚᱨ, ᱠᱟᱞᱟᱵᱩᱨᱟᱜᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱟᱭᱪᱩᱨ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱙᱗᱓ ᱥᱟᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱚᱨᱱᱟᱴᱚᱠ ᱱᱟᱣᱟ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

᱑᱙᱘᱖ ᱥᱟᱞ ᱨᱮ, ᱵᱮᱸᱜᱽᱞᱳᱨ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱵᱮᱸᱜᱽᱞᱳᱨ ᱫᱮᱦᱟᱛ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱮᱸᱜᱽᱞᱳᱨ ᱥᱚᱦᱨᱤ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱷᱟᱯᱚᱱ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾

ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱚ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱠᱳᱰ[᱓] ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱦᱮᱰᱠᱩᱣᱟᱴᱚᱨ[᱔] ᱛᱷᱟᱯᱚᱱ[᱕][᱖] ᱦᱚᱲ ᱮᱞ[᱗](᱒᱐᱑᱑) ᱮᱨᱤᱭᱟ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱮᱞ ᱰᱮᱱᱥᱤᱴᱤ(᱒᱐᱑᱑) ᱱᱚᱠᱥᱟ
ᱛᱩ ᱛᱩᱢᱠᱩᱨ ᱛᱩᱢᱠᱩᱨ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱒,᱖᱗᱘,᱙᱘᱐ 10,597 km2 (4,092 sq mi) 253/km2 (660/sq mi)
ᱜᱚ ᱜᱚᱰᱚᱜᱽ ᱜᱚᱰᱚᱜᱽ ᱒᱔ ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ ᱑᱙᱙᱗ ᱑,᱐᱖᱔,5᱕᱗᱐ 4,656 km2 (1,798 sq mi) 229/km2 (590/sq mi)
ᱜᱩ ᱜᱩᱞᱵᱩᱨᱜᱟ ᱜᱩᱞᱵᱚᱨᱜᱟ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱒,᱕᱖᱖,᱓᱒᱖ 10,951 km2 (4,228 sq mi) 234/km2 (610/sq mi)
ᱠᱯ ᱠᱚᱯᱯᱟᱞ ᱠᱚᱯᱯᱟᱞ ᱒᱔ ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ ᱑᱙᱙᱗ ᱑,᱓᱘᱙,᱙᱒᱐ 7,189 km2 (2,776 sq mi) 250/km2 (650/sq mi)
ᱠᱰ ᱠᱚᱰᱟᱜᱩ ᱢᱚᱰᱤᱠᱮᱨᱤ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱕᱕᱔,᱕᱑᱙ 4,102 km2 (1,584 sq mi) 135/km2 (350/sq mi)
ᱠᱞ ᱠᱳᱞᱟᱨ ᱠᱳᱞᱟᱨ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱑,᱕᱓᱖,᱔᱐᱑ 3,969 km2 (1,532 sq mi)[᱘] 386/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
ᱢᱟ ᱢᱟᱱᱰᱭᱟ ᱢᱟᱱᱰᱭᱟ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖[᱙][᱑᱐] ᱑,᱘᱐᱕,᱗᱖᱙ 4,961 km2 (1,915 sq mi) 364/km2 (940/sq mi)
ᱢᱭ ᱢᱟᱭᱥᱩᱨ ᱢᱟᱭᱥᱩᱨ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱓,᱐᱐᱑,᱑᱒᱗ 6,854 km2 (2,646 sq mi) 476/km2 (1,230/sq mi)
ᱥᱢ ᱥᱤᱢᱳᱜᱟ ᱥᱤᱢᱳᱜᱟ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱑,᱗᱕᱒,᱗᱕᱓ 8,477 km2 (3,273 sq mi) 207/km2 (540/sq mi)
ᱦᱥ ᱦᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱦᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱑,᱗᱗᱖,᱔᱒᱑ 6,814 km2 (2,631 sq mi) 261/km2 (680/sq mi)
ᱦᱵ ᱦᱟᱵᱮᱨᱤ ᱦᱟᱵᱮᱨᱤ ᱒᱔ ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ ᱑᱙᱙᱗ ᱑,᱕᱙᱗,᱖᱖᱘ 4,823 km2 (1,862 sq mi) 331/km2 (860/sq mi)
ᱨᱢ ᱨᱟᱢᱱᱚᱜᱚᱨ ᱨᱟᱢᱱᱚᱜᱚᱨ ᱑᱐ ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱒᱐᱐᱗ ᱑,᱐᱘᱒,᱖᱓᱖ 3,556 km2 (1,373 sq mi) 308/km2 (800/sq mi)
ᱨᱟ ᱨᱟᱭᱪᱩᱨ ᱨᱟᱭᱪᱩᱨ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱑,᱙᱒᱘,᱘᱑᱒ 8,440 km2 (3,260 sq mi) 228/km2 (590/sq mi)
ᱩᱠ ᱩᱛᱛᱚᱨ ᱠᱚᱱᱱᱚᱲ ᱠᱟᱨᱣᱟᱨ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱑,᱔᱓᱗,᱑᱖᱙ 10,291 km2 (3,973 sq mi) 140/km2 (360/sq mi)
ᱩᱰ ᱩᱰᱩᱯᱤ ᱩᱰᱩᱯᱤ ᱒᱕ ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ ᱑᱙᱙᱗ ᱑,᱑᱗᱗,᱓᱖᱑ 3,880 km2 (1,500 sq mi) 329/km2 (850/sq mi)
ᱪᱢ ᱪᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱽᱱᱚᱜᱚᱨ ᱪᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱽᱱᱚᱜᱚᱨ ᱑᱕ ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ ᱑᱙᱙᱗ ᱑,᱐᱒᱐,᱗᱙᱑ 5,101 km2 (1,970 sq mi) 181/km2 (470/sq mi)
ᱪᱛ ᱪᱤᱛᱨᱚᱫᱩᱨᱜᱟ ᱪᱤᱛᱨᱚᱫᱩᱨᱜᱟ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱑,᱖᱕᱙,᱔᱕᱖ 8,440 km2 (3,260 sq mi) 197/km2 (510/sq mi)
ᱪᱵ ᱪᱤᱠᱠᱚᱵᱚᱞᱞᱟᱯᱩᱨ ᱪᱚᱠᱠᱚᱵᱚᱞᱞᱟᱯᱩᱨ ᱑᱐ ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱒᱐᱐᱗ ᱑,᱒᱕᱕,᱑᱐᱔ 4,524 km2 (1,747 sq mi)[᱑᱑] 296/km2 (770/sq mi)
ᱪᱠ ᱪᱤᱠᱢᱚᱜᱚᱞᱩᱨ ᱪᱤᱠᱢᱚᱜᱩᱯᱩᱨ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱑,᱑᱓᱗,᱙᱖᱑ 7,201 km2 (2,780 sq mi) 158/km2 (410/sq mi)
ᱫᱠ ᱫᱚᱠᱠᱷᱤᱱ ᱠᱚᱱᱱᱚᱲ ᱢᱟᱸᱜᱽᱞᱳᱨ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱒,᱐᱘᱙,᱖᱔᱙ 4,560 km2 (1,760 sq mi) 430/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
ᱫᱟ ᱫᱟᱵᱚᱬᱜᱮᱨᱮ ᱫᱟᱵᱚᱬᱜᱮᱨᱮ ᱑᱕ ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ ᱑᱙᱙᱗ ᱑,᱖᱔᱓,᱔᱙᱔ 4,460 km2 (1,720 sq mi) 370/km2 (960/sq mi)
ᱫᱷ ᱫᱷᱟᱨᱣᱟᱲ ᱫᱷᱟᱨᱣᱟᱲ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱑,᱘᱔᱗,᱐᱒᱓ 4,260 km2 (1,640 sq mi) 434/km2 (1,120/sq mi)
ᱭᱫ ᱭᱟᱫᱽᱜᱤᱨ ᱭᱟᱫᱽᱜᱤᱨ ᱓᱐ ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱒᱐᱐᱙ ᱑,᱑᱗᱔,᱒᱗᱑

5,234 km2 (2,021 sq mi)

ᱵᱠ ᱵᱟᱜᱟᱞᱠᱚᱴ ᱵᱟᱜᱟᱞᱠᱚᱴ ᱑᱕ ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ ᱑᱙᱙᱗[᱑᱒] ᱑,᱘᱘᱙,᱗᱕᱒ 6,575 km2 (2,539 sq mi) 288/km2 (750/sq mi)
ᱵᱱ ᱵᱤᱡᱚᱭᱱᱚᱜᱚᱨ ᱦᱚᱥᱯᱮᱴ ᱑᱘ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱒᱐᱒᱐ ᱑,᱓᱕᱓,᱖᱒᱘ 5,644 km2 (2,179 sq mi) 240/km2 (620/sq mi)
ᱵᱡ ᱵᱤᱡᱟᱯᱩᱨ ᱵᱤᱡᱟᱯᱩᱨ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱒,᱑᱗᱗,᱓᱓᱑ 10,498 km2 (4,053 sq mi) 210/km2 (540/sq mi)
ᱵᱫ ᱵᱤᱫᱟᱨ ᱵᱤᱫᱟᱨ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱑,᱗᱐᱓,᱓᱐᱐ 5,448 km2 (2,103 sq mi) 313/km2 (810/sq mi)
ᱵᱞ ᱵᱮᱞᱞᱟᱨᱤ ᱵᱮᱞᱞᱟᱨᱤ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱑,᱔᱐᱐,᱙᱗᱐ 4,252 km2 (1,642 sq mi) 290/km2 (750/sq mi)
ᱵᱜ ᱵᱮᱞᱟᱜᱚᱵᱤ ᱵᱮᱞᱟᱜᱚᱵᱤ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱔,᱗᱗᱙,᱖᱖᱑ 13,415 km2 (5,180 sq mi) 356/km2 (920/sq mi)
ᱵᱱ ᱵᱮᱸᱜᱽᱞᱳᱨ ᱥᱚᱦᱨᱤ ᱵᱮᱸᱜᱽᱞᱳᱨ ᱑ ᱱᱚᱵᱷᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱙᱕᱖ ᱙,᱖᱒᱑,᱕᱕᱑ 2,190 km2 (850 sq mi) 4,393/km2 (11,380/sq mi)
ᱵᱨ ᱵᱮᱸᱜᱽᱞᱳᱨ ᱫᱮᱦᱟᱛ ᱵᱮᱸᱜᱽᱞᱳᱨ ᱑᱕ ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ ᱑᱙᱘᱖[᱑᱓] ᱙᱙᱐,᱙᱒᱓ 2,259 km2 (872 sq mi) 431/km2 (1,120/sq mi)

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. "Petition against transfer of Bellary dismissed". Indian Express. 30 September 1953. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  2. Chinnappa, Jeevan (15 November 2005). "Did reorganisation panel ignore Kodava leaders' plea?". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 12 December 2006. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  3. "NIC Policy on format of e-mail Address: Appendix (2): Districts Abbreviations as per ISO 3166–2" (PDF). Ministry Of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India. 2004-08-18. pp. 5–10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-11. Retrieved 2008-11-24.
  4. "Know India – Districts of Karnataka". Government of India portal. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
  5. Here 'Established' means year of establishment as a district of Karnataka. If the district was formed earlier to the formation of district in the state of Karnataka, 1 November 1956 will be considered as the day of establishment of the district.
  6. "STATES REORGANISATION ACT 1956 - Formation of a new Mysore State". Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
  7. "List of districts of Karnataka".
  8. "Kolar district at a glance" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 March 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  9. Note: This date means the day when the district was initially formed, even before the formation of the state of Karnataka (Mysore). Hence 1 November 1956 will be considered as the day of formation of district in the state of Karnataka
  10. "Formation of Mandya district". Archived from the original on 2 August 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  11. "District Profile – Area and population". Archived from the original on 25 November 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  12. "A Handbook of Karnataka – Administration" (PDF). Government of Karnataka. pp. 354, 355. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
  13. "District Profile". Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2010.

ᱵᱟᱦᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]