ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ

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ᱤᱣᱨᱚ ᱠᱟᱜᱚᱡᱽ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ

ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱡᱤᱱᱤᱥ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱱ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱠᱚ ᱠᱤᱨᱤᱧ ᱟᱹᱠᱷᱨᱤᱧ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱟᱠᱚ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ, ᱡᱮᱢᱚᱱ ᱡᱩᱢᱤᱫᱽ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ (US) ᱰᱚᱞᱟᱨ (Dollar) ᱟᱨᱵᱟᱝ ᱵᱨᱤᱴᱤᱥ ᱯᱟᱣᱩᱸᱰ (pound) ᱾ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱤᱫᱤ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ, ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱜᱚᱱᱚᱝ ᱜᱩᱱ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱷᱮᱯᱮᱫ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱞᱟᱰᱞᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱮᱫᱟᱭ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ

ᱵᱮᱯᱟᱨ ᱥᱮ ᱮᱯᱮᱢ-ᱛᱟᱯᱟᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱟ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ [1] ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱥᱮᱫᱟᱭᱫᱚ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱤᱨᱤᱧ ᱟᱹᱠᱷᱨᱤᱧ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱩᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱡᱤᱱᱤᱥ ᱵᱚᱫᱚᱞ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱡᱤᱱᱤᱥ ᱠᱚ ᱮᱯᱮᱢ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱞᱟᱹᱠᱛᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱯᱩᱨᱩᱱᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ [1] ᱢᱤᱫ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱜᱟᱹᱭ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱟᱨᱢᱤᱫ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱵᱟᱹᱲᱛᱤ ᱜᱩᱦᱩᱢ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ, ᱩᱱᱤ ᱥᱟᱞᱟᱜ-ᱮ ᱮᱯᱮᱢ ᱪᱟᱟᱯᱟᱞ ᱵᱮᱯᱟᱨ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱ ᱜᱷᱚᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱚᱯᱚᱫᱚᱞ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱪᱟᱥᱵᱟᱥ ᱡᱤᱱᱤᱥ ᱠᱚᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱚᱫᱚᱞ ᱜᱟᱱᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ , ᱱᱚᱝᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱜᱟᱹᱭ ᱰᱟᱺᱜᱽᱨᱤ, ᱠᱟᱰᱟ, ᱢᱮᱨᱚᱢ , ᱥᱤᱢ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱚ ᱜᱚᱱᱚᱝ-ᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱦᱩᱲᱩ ᱪᱟᱣᱞᱮ ᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱤᱨᱤᱧ ᱟᱹᱠᱷᱨᱤᱧᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱥᱚᱱᱟ-ᱵᱟᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱡᱽᱵᱟᱡᱽ ᱛᱮᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱮᱯᱟᱨ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱱ (ᱡᱮᱞᱮᱠ, ᱜᱟᱹᱭ, ᱦᱳᱲᱳ, ᱜᱩᱦᱩᱢ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ) ᱵᱮᱯᱟᱨ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱚᱫᱚᱞ ᱠᱮᱫ-ᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱫᱤᱱ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱ ᱢᱟ ᱚᱱᱠᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱾ ᱜᱟᱹᱭ ᱢᱤᱦᱩ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱫᱤᱱ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱵᱟᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱜᱩᱡᱩᱜ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱫᱷᱟᱫᱚᱥ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ, ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱵᱚᱫᱚᱞ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱩᱭᱦᱟᱹᱨ ᱵᱚᱞᱚᱣᱟᱫ ᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱢᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱱᱩᱠᱩ ᱱᱤᱛ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱜᱚᱱᱚᱝ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱟᱱᱟᱣᱮᱫ ᱠᱚ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱮᱯᱮᱢ ᱪᱟᱯᱟᱞ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ (metal coins) ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨᱟᱠᱟᱫ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱞᱟᱭᱰᱩᱭᱟ[2] ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱮᱭᱟᱭ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱟᱸᱫ ᱯᱟᱪᱷᱮ ᱥᱮᱦᱮᱫ ᱯᱟᱥᱴᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱩᱛᱚᱜ ᱛᱩᱲᱩᱠ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱵᱟᱝᱢᱟ ᱛᱩᱨᱠᱤ ᱵᱚᱱ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ [2] ᱞᱟᱭᱰᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱟᱢᱟᱞ ᱢᱮᱬᱦᱮᱫ ᱛᱮ ᱛᱮᱭᱟᱨ ᱠᱚᱜ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱟᱴᱟᱠᱩᱞ ᱪᱤᱛᱟᱹᱨ ᱪᱷᱟᱯᱟ ᱠᱚᱜ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱜᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱚᱥᱟᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱩᱯ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱜᱮᱸᱫ ᱾ ᱛᱤᱢᱤᱱ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱡᱤᱱᱤᱥ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱾

ᱥᱩᱵᱤᱫᱷᱟ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱫᱤ-ᱟᱹᱜᱩ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱟᱞᱜᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ, ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱟᱨᱦᱚᱸ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ,ᱩᱵᱤᱫᱷᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱟᱞᱜᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱜᱟᱱᱚᱜ-ᱟ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱵᱮᱯᱟᱨ ᱡᱤᱱᱤᱥ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱾ ᱡᱮᱢᱚᱱ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱰᱟᱺᱜᱽᱨᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱭᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱩᱱᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱫᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱮᱜᱮ ᱜᱩᱦᱩᱢ ᱠᱤᱨᱤᱧ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱭ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱛᱚᱵᱮ ᱚᱱᱠᱟ ᱟᱫᱷᱟ ᱜᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱢᱟ ᱵᱟᱭ ᱮᱢ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱟᱡᱤᱡ ᱰᱟᱺᱜᱽᱨᱤ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱛᱮᱭ ᱟᱹᱠᱷᱨᱤᱧᱮᱭᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱜᱩᱦᱩᱢ ᱮ ᱠᱤᱨᱤᱧᱟ, ᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱡᱚᱛᱷᱟᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮ ᱧᱟᱢᱟ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱞᱟᱹᱠᱛᱤ ᱡᱟᱹᱱᱤ ᱾

ᱰᱟᱺᱜᱽᱨᱤ ᱫᱚᱭ ᱜᱩᱡᱩᱜ-ᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱜᱩᱦᱩᱢ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱯᱷᱩᱯᱰᱟᱹ ᱵᱟᱠᱟᱨ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜ-ᱟ, ᱢᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱠᱟᱹᱶᱰᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱫᱤᱱ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱚᱱᱠᱟ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱩᱫᱤ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱰᱟᱺᱜᱽᱨᱤ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱛᱮᱭ ᱟᱹᱠᱷᱨᱤᱧ ᱮᱭᱟ, ᱚᱱᱟ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱞᱟᱹᱠᱛᱤ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱮ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱜᱩᱨ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱟᱡ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱜᱟᱬᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ-ᱮ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜ-ᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱰᱟᱺᱜᱽᱨᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱷᱟᱹᱜᱤ ᱵᱟᱠᱚ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱛᱤᱢᱤᱱ ᱜᱟᱱᱫᱚ ᱫᱩᱨᱵᱩᱲ ᱜᱮ ᱟᱨ ᱛᱤᱢᱤᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱟᱲᱟᱢ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱟᱨ ᱟᱫᱷᱟᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱟᱯᱟᱭ ᱟᱨ ᱞᱟᱵᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱺᱦᱤᱡ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱠᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱜᱩᱦᱩᱢ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱛᱤᱢᱤᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱷᱩᱯᱰᱟ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱛᱤᱢᱤᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱮᱥ ᱜᱮ ᱾ ᱢᱮᱱᱫᱚ ᱱᱩᱠᱤᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱚᱴᱟᱣ-ᱯᱩᱴᱤ ᱮᱯᱮᱢ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚᱭ ᱤᱫᱤᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱚᱲᱦᱚ ᱚᱱᱠᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱰᱚᱞᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱨᱢᱤᱫ ᱰᱚᱞᱟᱨ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱥᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱟᱞᱜᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱟᱨ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱜᱟᱱᱚᱜ-ᱟ, ᱵᱷᱮᱯᱮᱫ ᱰᱟᱺᱜᱽᱨᱤ ᱟᱨᱵᱟᱝ ᱜᱩᱦᱩᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱾

ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱠᱟᱜᱚᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱮᱦᱚᱵ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱮᱬᱦᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱜᱚᱱᱚᱝ ᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱮᱛᱚᱦᱚᱵ ᱥᱚᱛ ᱠᱟᱜᱚᱡᱽ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱪᱤᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱤᱥᱩ ᱜᱩᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱜᱮᱞ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱮᱦᱚᱵ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ [3] ᱠᱟᱜᱚᱡᱽ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱣᱤᱰᱮᱱ ᱨᱮᱦᱚᱸ ᱪᱷᱟᱯᱟ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱫ ᱑᱖᱖᱐ ᱟᱨ ᱑᱖᱖᱔ ᱥᱟᱞᱮ ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱾ [4]

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  • "Money", BBC Radio 4 discussion with Niall Ferguson, Richard J. Evans and Jane Humphries (In Our Time, Mar. 1, 2001)
  • Linguistic and Commodity Exchanges by Elmer G. Wiens. Examines the structural differences between barter and monetary commodity exchanges and oral and written linguistic exchanges.
  • Raise a Money-Smart Kid

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. 1.0 1.1 cite web |url=https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/history-money.html |title=The History of Money |author=NOVA |date=26 October 1996 |website=NOVA |publisher=WGBH Educational Foundation |accessdate=23 April 2015
  2. 2.0 2.1 cite web |url=http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/themes/money/the_origins_of_coinage.aspx |title=The origins of coinage |author= |date= |website= |publisher=Trustees of the British Museum |accessdate=23 April 2015
  3. cite web |url=http://www.archaic-jade.com/papermoney/money.htm |title=A Short History of Money |author= |date= |website= |publisher=Chinese Archaic-Jade Shop |accessdate=23 April 2015
  4. cite web |url=http://www.nbbmuseum.be/2008/04/cradle-european-banknote.htm |title=The cradle of the European banknote's