ᱥᱚᱝᱥᱠᱨᱤᱛ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ, ᱨᱟᱲᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
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ᱥᱚᱝᱥᱠᱨᱤᱛ
संस्कृत-, संस्कृतम्
Saṃskṛta-, Saṃskṛtam
BhagavadGita-19th-century-Illustrated-Sanskrit-Chapter 1.20.21.jpg
Sanskrit College 1999 stamp of India.jpg
(top) A 19th-century illustrated Sanskrit manuscript from the Bhagwad Gita,[᱑] composed ca 400 BCE - 200 BCE.[᱒][᱓] (bottom) The 175th-anniversary stamp of the third-oldest Sanskrit college, Sanskrit College, Calcutta. The oldest is Benares Sanskrit College, founded in 1791.
ᱮᱞᱟᱠᱟ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ (ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱟᱨ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱡᱩᱜᱽ), ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝᱼᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱚ (ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱡᱩᱜᱽ)
Era c. 2nd millennium BCE – 600 BCE (ᱵᱳᱭᱫᱤᱠ ᱥᱚᱝᱥᱠᱨᱤᱛ);[᱔]
700 BCE – 1350 CE (ᱠᱞᱟᱥᱤᱠ ᱥᱚᱝᱥᱠᱨᱤᱛ)[᱕]
Revival There are no native speakers of Sanskrit.[᱖][᱗][᱘][᱙][᱑᱐][᱑᱑]
ᱚᱞ ᱛᱚᱦᱚᱨ
ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱡᱩᱜᱽ ᱨᱮᱫᱚ ᱢᱚᱪᱟ ᱢᱚᱪᱟ ᱛᱮᱜᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ᱾ ᱯᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱥᱟᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ CE ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱵᱨᱚᱦᱚᱢᱤ ᱦᱚᱨᱚᱯ ᱛᱮᱠᱚ ᱚᱞᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱ[lower-alpha ᱑][᱑᱒][᱑᱓] ᱱᱮᱛᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱮᱵᱽᱱᱟᱜᱽᱨᱤ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ
ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱢᱟᱱᱚᱛ
ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱮᱛ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ
ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ, ᱒᱒ ᱜᱚᱴᱟᱱ ᱥᱤᱰᱩᱞ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱢᱩᱫᱽ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ
ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱳᱰ
ISO 639-1 sa
ISO 639-2 san
ISO 639-3 san
ᱜᱽᱞᱚᱴᱴᱚᱞᱚᱜᱽ sans1269[᱑᱔]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

ᱥᱚᱝᱥᱠᱨᱤᱛ ( /ˈsænskrɪt/, संस्कृत; संस्कृतम्) ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱣᱨᱳᱯᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱚᱝᱥᱠᱨᱤᱛ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱩ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱩ, ᱵᱩᱫᱫᱷᱚ ᱟᱨ ᱡᱳᱭᱱᱳ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱚᱨᱥᱚᱝ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱚᱛᱱᱚᱜ ᱪᱷᱮᱨ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱚᱞ ᱛᱚᱦᱚᱨ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱚᱨᱥᱚᱝ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱱᱮᱵᱮᱛᱟᱨ ᱡᱩᱜᱽ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱟᱨᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱢᱮ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. Mascaró, Juan (2003). The Bhagavad Gita. Penguin. pp. 13 ff. ISBN 978-0-14-044918-1. The Bhagawad Gita, an intensely spiritual work, that forms one of the cornerstones of the Hindu faith, and is also one of the masterpieces of Sanskrit poetry. (from the backcover) 
  2. Besant, Annie (trans) (1922). The Bhagavad-gita; or, The Lord's Song, with text in Devanagari, and English translation. Madras: G. E. Natesan & Co. प्रवृत्ते शस्त्रसम्पाते धनुरुद्यम्य पाण्डवः ॥ २० ॥
    Then, beholding the sons of Dhritarâshtra standing arrayed, and flight of missiles about to begin, ... the son of Pându, took up his bow,(20)
    हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यमिदमाह महीपते । अर्जुन उवाच । ...॥ २१ ॥
    And spake this word to Hrishîkesha, O Lord of Earth: Arjuna said: ...
     
  3. Radhakrishnan, S. (1948). The Bhagavadgītā: With an introductory essay, Sanskrit text, English translation, and notes. London, UK: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. p. 86. ... pravyite Sastrasampate
    dhanur udyamya pandavah (20)
    Then Arjuna, ... looked at the sons of Dhrtarastra drawn up in battle order; and as the flight of missiles (almost) started, he took up his bow.
    hystkesam tada vakyam
    idam aha mahipate ... (21)
    And, O Lord of earth, he spoke this word to Hrsikesha (Krsna): ...
     
  4. Uta Reinöhl (2016). Grammaticalization and the Rise of Configurationality in Indo-Aryan. Oxford University Press. pp. xiv, 1–16. ISBN 978-0-19-873666-0. 
  5. Colin P. Masica 1993, p. 55: "Thus Classical Sanskrit, fixed by Panini’s grammar in probably the fourth century BC on the basis of a class dialect (and preceding grammatical tradition) of probably the seventh century BC, had its greatest literary flowering in the first millennium A D and even later, much of it therefore a full thousand years after the stage of the language it ostensibly represents."
  6. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named patrick-mccartney-5-10-20
  7. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named patrick-mccartney-5-11-20
  8. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named sreevastan-thehindu-sanskrit
  9. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Lowe2017
  10. Ruppel, A. M. (2017). The Cambridge Introduction to Sanskrit. Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-107-08828-3. The study of any ancient (or dead) language is faced with one main challenge: ancient languages have no native speakers who could provide us with examples of simple everyday speech 
  11. Annamalai, E. (2008). "Contexts of multilingualism". In Braj B. Kachru; Yamuna Kachru; S. N. Sridhar. Language in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 223–. ISBN 978-1-139-46550-2. Some of the migrated languages ... such as Sanskrit and English, remained primarily as a second language, even though their native speakers were lost. Some native languages like the language of the Indus valley were lost with their speakers, while some linguistic communities shifted their language to one or other of the migrants' languages. 
  12. Jain, Dhanesh (2007). "Sociolinguistics of the Indo-Aryan languages". In George Cardona; Dhanesh Jain. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 47–66, 51. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9. In the history of Indo-Aryan, writing was a later development and its adoption has been slow even in modern times. The first written word comes to us through Asokan inscriptions dating back to the third century BC. Originally, Brahmi was used to write Prakrit (MIA); for Sanskrit (OIA) it was used only four centuries later (Masica 1991: 135). The MIA traditions of Buddhist and Jain texts show greater regard for the written word than the OIA Brahminical tradition, though writing was available to Old Indo-Aryans. 
  13. Salomon, Richard (2007). "The Writing Systems of the Indo-Aryan Languages". In George Cardona; Dhanesh Jain. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 67–102. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9. Although in modern usage Sanskrit is most commonly written or printed in Nagari, in theory, it can be represented by virtually any of the main Brahmi-based scripts, and in practice it often is. Thus scripts such as Gujarati, Bangla, and Oriya, as well as the major south Indian scripts, traditionally have been and often still are used in their proper territories for writing Sanskrit. Sanskrit, in other words, is not inherently linked to any particular script, although it does have a special historical connection with Nagari. 
  14. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sanskrit". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 


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