ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ, ᱨᱟᱲᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Indo-Iranian
Aryan
Geographic
distribution
South, Central, Western Asia, South East Europe and the Caucasus / Total speakers = approximately 1.5 billion in 15 countries
Linguistic classification Indo-European
  • Indo-Iranian
Proto-language Proto-Indo-Iranian
Subdivisions
ISO 639-5 iir
Glottolog indo1320[᱑]
Indo-European branches map.svg
The approximate present-day distribution of the Indo-European branches of Eurasia:
  Indo-Iranian

ᱤᱱᱫᱤ-ᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ (ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ[᱒][᱓]) ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱣᱨᱳᱯᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱪᱟᱸᱜᱟ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚᱛᱮ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱑᱕᱐ ᱠᱳᱴᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱡᱟᱹᱥᱛᱤ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱣᱨᱳᱯ (ᱨᱳᱢᱟᱱᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ), ᱛᱩᱨᱠᱤ (ᱠᱩᱨᱫᱤᱥ ᱟᱨ ᱡᱟᱡᱟ-ᱜᱳᱨᱟᱱᱤ) ᱠᱚᱠᱮᱥᱟᱥ (ᱳᱥᱮᱴᱤᱭᱟᱱ) ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱮᱦᱚᱵ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱡᱽ ᱥᱤᱱᱡᱤᱭᱟᱝ (ᱥᱟᱨᱤᱠᱳᱞᱤ) ᱟᱨ ᱟᱥᱟᱢ (ᱟᱥᱟᱢᱤᱥ) ᱥᱮᱫ ᱛᱮ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱥᱨᱤᱞᱚᱝᱠᱟ (ᱥᱤᱝᱦᱚᱞᱤ) ᱟᱨ ᱢᱟᱞᱫᱤᱯ (ᱢᱟᱞᱫᱤᱵᱷᱤᱭᱟᱱ) ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱫ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱳᱥᱤᱭᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱷᱤᱡᱤ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱾ ᱟᱨᱦᱚᱸ, ᱮᱛᱚᱢᱼᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱤᱣᱨᱳᱯ (ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ), ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱟᱢᱮᱨᱤᱠᱟ (ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟᱰᱟ, ᱟᱨ ᱚᱥᱴᱨᱮᱞᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱹᱰᱤᱜᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱤᱱᱫᱤ-ᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱤᱣᱨᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱣᱨᱳᱯᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱪᱟᱸᱜᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱱᱮᱵᱮᱛᱟᱨ ᱪᱷᱮᱨ
  ᱤᱱᱫᱳ-ᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ

ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱢᱟᱬᱮ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱨᱳᱴᱳᱼᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜᱼᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱟᱲᱟᱭᱚᱜᱼᱟ – ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱢᱫᱟᱡᱽ 3rd millennium BC ᱞᱟᱦᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱮᱵᱮᱛᱟᱨ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱮᱭᱟ ᱪᱟᱸᱜᱟ ᱛᱷᱚᱠ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ, ᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱱᱩᱨᱤᱥᱛᱟᱱᱤ ᱾ ᱯᱩᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱷᱩᱨᱜᱟᱹᱞ ᱪᱟᱸᱜᱟ ᱛᱷᱚᱠ ᱫᱟᱨᱫᱤᱠ ᱞᱟᱦᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱱ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱢᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱱᱟᱦᱟᱜ ᱫᱤᱱ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱪᱟᱸᱜᱟ ᱛᱷᱚᱠ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ[᱔]

ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱪᱟᱨᱴ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱣᱨᱳᱯᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱸᱡᱽ ᱢᱩᱫ ᱨᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱮ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧᱟ
ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱪᱷᱮᱨ

ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱯᱮᱭᱟ ᱜᱽᱨᱩᱯ ᱤᱫᱤ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱡᱽ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ:

ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱡᱮᱜᱮᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱑᱕᱐ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱡᱟᱹᱥᱛᱤ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱡᱟᱹᱥᱛᱤ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱪᱟᱸᱜᱟ ᱛᱷᱚᱠ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ : ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱤ-ᱩᱨᱫᱩ (~᱕᱙᱐ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ) ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱵᱷᱳᱡᱽᱯᱩᱨᱤ (᱔᱐ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ) ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱡᱽ, ᱚᱵᱷᱚᱫᱤ (᱔᱐ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱢᱚᱭᱛᱷᱤᱞᱤ (᱓᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱢᱟᱨᱣᱟᱲᱤ (᱓᱐ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱨᱟᱡᱚᱥᱛᱷᱟᱱᱤ (᱒᱐ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱪᱷᱚᱛᱤᱜᱚᱲᱤ (᱑᱘ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ (᱒᱐᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱯᱚᱧᱡᱟᱵᱤ (᱑᱐᱐ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱴᱷᱤ (᱗᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱜᱩᱡᱽᱨᱟᱴᱤ (᱕᱐ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱳᱰᱤᱭᱟ (᱓᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱥᱤᱱᱫᱷᱤ (᱒᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱟᱥᱟᱢᱤᱥ (᱒᱔ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱥᱤᱝᱦᱚᱞᱤ (᱑᱙ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱱᱮᱯᱟᱞᱤ (᱑᱗ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱵᱤᱥᱱᱩᱯᱨᱤᱭᱟ (᱑᱒ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ) ᱟᱨ ᱨᱚᱝᱯᱩᱨᱤ (᱑᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ) ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱾ ᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱪᱟᱸᱜᱟ ᱛᱷᱚᱠ ᱢᱩᱫ ᱨᱮ : ᱯᱷᱟᱨᱥᱤ (᱙᱐ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱯᱟᱥᱛᱳ (ᱜᱚᱴᱟᱜᱩᱴᱤ ᱕᱐ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱠᱩᱨᱫᱤᱥ (᱓᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ), ᱟᱨ ᱵᱟᱞᱩᱪᱤ (᱘ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ) ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱨᱦᱚᱸ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱦᱩᱰᱤᱝ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱢᱟᱬᱮ ᱯᱨᱳᱴᱳ-ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱨᱳᱴᱳᱼᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱨᱩᱣᱟᱹᱨ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱟᱬᱮ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱤᱨᱟᱱᱤᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱪᱤᱱᱦᱟᱹ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱳᱭᱫᱤᱠ ᱥᱚᱝᱠᱨᱤᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱟ ᱾

ᱟᱨᱦᱚᱸ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱢᱮ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]


ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Indo-Iranian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. D. D. Mahulkar (1990). Pre-Pāṇinian Linguistic Studies. Northern Book Centre. ISBN 978-81-85119-88-5. 
  3. Annarita Puglielli; Mara Frascarelli (2011). Linguistic Analysis: From Data to Theory. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-022250-0. 
  4. ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Cite encyclopaedia