ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ, ᱨᱟᱲᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
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ᱠᱤᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ ᱟᱠᱟ ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ
Kikongo
ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ Ancient Kingdom of Kongo prior to the creation of Angola by the Portuguese Crown in 1575 and the Berlin Conference (1884-1885) that balkanized the rest of the Kingdom of Kongo into three territories that are now parts of the DRC (Kongo Central and Bandundu), Angola, the Republic of the Congo and Gabon.
ᱡᱟᱹᱛ "ᱵᱤᱥᱤ ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ" (pl) ᱟᱨ "ᱢᱣᱤᱥᱤ ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ" (sing) prior to the Berlin Conference and then "Bakongo" (pl) and "Mukongo" (sing) after that;[᱑] thus we have Bakongo from Angola, the DRC, the Republic of the Congo and Gabon.
ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ
ᱜᱚᱴᱟᱜᱩᱴᱤ ᱖.᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ (᱑᱙᱘᱒ᱼ᱒᱐᱑᱒)[᱓]
᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ L2 ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱦᱚᱲ DRC ᱨᱮ (ᱦᱩᱭ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱠᱤᱛᱩᱵᱟ)
ᱚᱞ ᱛᱚᱦᱚᱨ
ᱞᱟᱛᱤᱱ, ᱢᱟᱱᱰᱳᱢᱵᱮ
ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱢᱟᱱᱚᱛ
ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱹᱞᱮᱛ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ

ᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱮᱼᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱤ:
 ᱮᱝᱜᱳᱞᱟ


ᱵᱮᱼᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱮᱼᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱤ:
 ᱜᱚᱱᱚᱛᱟᱱᱛᱨᱤᱠ ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ ᱯᱨᱚᱡᱟᱛᱚᱱᱛᱨᱚ
 ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ ᱯᱨᱚᱡᱟᱛᱚᱱᱛᱨᱚ
ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱥᱤᱫ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ
ᱢᱟᱹᱱ ᱮᱢᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ
ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱳᱰ
ISO 639-1 kg
ISO 639-2 kon
ISO 639-3 kon – inclusive code
Individual codes:
kng – Koongo
ldi – Laari
kwy – San Salvador Kongo (South)
yom – Yombe[᱒]
ᱜᱽᱞᱚᱴᱴᱚᱞᱚᱜᱽ core1256  Core Kikongo; incl. Kituba & ex-Kongo varieties[᱔]
yomb1244  Yombe[᱕]
H.14–16[᱖]
LanguageMap-Kikongo-Kituba.png
Map of the area where Kongo and Kituba as the lingua franca are spoken. NB:[᱗][᱘][᱙] Kisikongo (also called Kisansala by some authors) is the Kikongo spoken in Mbanza Kongo. Kisikongo is not the mother language that carries the Kongo (i.e. Kikongo) Language Cluster.
ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ
ᱢᱟᱹᱱᱢᱤ ᱢᱩᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ, ᱢᱣᱤᱥᱤᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ
ᱦᱚᱲ ᱵᱟᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ, ᱵᱤᱥᱤ ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ, ᱵᱮᱥᱤ ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ, ᱮᱥᱤᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ
ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱤᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ

ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ ᱥᱮ ᱠᱤᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ (ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ: Kikongo) ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱵᱟᱱᱴᱩ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱚᱱᱚᱛᱟᱱᱛᱨᱤᱠ ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ ᱯᱨᱚᱡᱟᱛᱚᱱᱛᱨᱚ, ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ ᱯᱨᱚᱡᱟᱛᱚᱱᱛᱨᱚ, ᱮᱝᱜᱳᱞᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱜᱮᱵᱚᱱ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱫᱟᱥ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱢᱮᱨᱤᱠᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱤᱫᱤ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱛᱚᱵᱮ ᱡᱟᱹᱥᱛᱤ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱜᱮ ᱟᱯᱷᱨᱤᱠᱟ ᱨᱮᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱟᱢᱫᱟᱡᱽ ᱗᱐ ᱞᱟᱠᱷ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱟᱭᱚ ᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱨᱦᱚᱸ ᱫᱚᱥᱟᱨ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱒᱐ ᱞᱟᱠᱷ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱚᱲ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱚᱛᱱᱚᱜ ᱪᱷᱮᱨ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱚᱞ ᱛᱚᱦᱚᱨ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱯᱟᱹᱱᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ ᱪᱮᱫᱚᱜ ᱥᱟᱯᱟᱵᱽ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. Wyatt MacGaffey, Kongo Political Culture: The Conceptual Challenge of the Particular, Indiana University Press, 2000, p.62
  2. Maho 2009
  3. ᱠᱤᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ ᱟᱠᱟ ᱠᱚᱝᱜᱳ at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Koongo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Laari at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    San Salvador Kongo (South) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Yombe[᱒] at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  4. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Core Kikongo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  5. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yombe". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  6. Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  7. Jasper DE KIND , Sebastian DOM, Gilles-Maurice DE SCHRYVER et Koen BOSTOEN, Fronted-infinitive constructions in Kikongo (Bantu H16): verb focus, progressive aspect and future, KongoKing Research Group, Department of Languages and Cultures, Ghent University, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 2013
  8. Koen Bostoen et Inge Brinkman, The Kongo Kingdom: The Origins, Dynamics and Cosmopolitan Culture of an African Polity, Cambridge University Press, 2018
  9. Raphaël Batsîkama Ba Mampuya Ma Ndâwla, L'ancien royaume du Congo et les Bakongo, séquences d'histoire populaire, L'harmattan, 2000