ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱼᱟᱥᱟᱢᱤᱥ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ, ᱨᱟᱲᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚᱟᱥᱟᱢᱤᱥ, ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ, ᱵᱤᱥᱱᱩᱯᱨᱤᱭᱟ ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱯᱩᱨᱤ, ᱢᱮᱭᱛᱮᱭ, ᱥᱤᱞᱮᱴᱤ, ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ, ᱠᱚᱠᱵᱚᱨᱚᱠ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ, ᱜᱟᱨᱚ, ᱦᱟᱡᱚᱝ, ᱪᱟᱠᱢᱟ, ᱪᱚᱴᱴᱚᱜᱽᱨᱟᱢᱤᱭᱟ, ᱢᱳᱹᱭᱛᱷᱤᱞᱤ, ᱠᱟᱢᱛᱟᱯᱩᱨᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱠᱚ
ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱥᱤᱢᱟᱹ
c. ᱑᱑᱐᱐–ᱱᱤᱛ
ᱥᱤᱨᱡᱚᱱ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ
ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹ ᱛᱚᱦᱚᱨ
ᱟᱥᱟᱢᱤᱥ, ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ, ᱚᱝᱜᱚ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ
ᱟᱭᱮᱥᱳ ᱑᱕᱙᱒᱔Beng,
U+0980–U+09FF (ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ),
U+011480–U+0114DF (ᱛᱤᱨᱦᱩᱛᱟ)
[ᱚ] ᱵᱨᱟᱢᱦᱤ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱮᱢᱮᱴᱤᱠ ᱥᱤᱨᱡᱚᱱ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱟᱱᱟᱣᱟ᱾[᱑]

ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱼᱟᱥᱟᱢᱤᱥ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ[᱕] (ᱥᱮ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱱᱟᱜᱽᱨᱤ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ[᱖]), ᱵᱨᱟᱦᱢᱤ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱩᱛᱱᱟᱹᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱱᱟᱦᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱱᱟᱜᱽᱨᱤ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾[᱗] ᱜᱳᱣᱲᱤ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱦᱟᱯᱲᱟᱢ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾[᱘] ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱦᱚᱲ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ[᱙], ᱟᱥᱟᱢᱤᱥ ᱨᱚᱲᱼᱦᱚᱲ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱟᱥᱟᱢᱤᱥ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ[᱑᱐] ᱟᱨ ᱚᱞᱚᱜ ᱯᱟᱲᱦᱟᱣ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱱᱟᱜᱽᱨᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱵᱟᱲᱟᱭᱚᱜᱼᱟ᱾[᱑᱑]

ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱥᱚᱢᱤᱭᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱵᱮᱜᱚᱨ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱤᱥᱱᱩᱯᱨᱤᱭᱟ ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱯᱩᱨᱤ, ᱪᱟᱠᱢᱟ, ᱢᱮᱭᱛᱮᱭ (ᱢᱟᱱᱤᱯᱩᱨ), ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱤᱞᱮᱴᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱚᱞ ᱨᱮᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱜᱼᱟ᱾[᱑᱒][᱑᱓] ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ, ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱟᱨ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱟᱨ ᱱᱤᱛ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱥᱚᱸᱥᱠᱨᱤᱛ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾[᱑᱔] ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱡᱮᱞᱮᱠᱟ, ᱟᱝᱜᱤᱠᱟ, ᱵᱚᱰᱚ, ᱠᱟᱨᱵᱤ, ᱢᱳᱹᱭᱛᱷᱤᱞᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱥᱤᱝ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱜᱼᱟ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱᱟ᱾[᱑᱕]

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱵᱤᱥᱮᱥ ᱠᱟᱭᱛᱮ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱼᱟᱥᱟᱢᱤᱥ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱱ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱥᱟᱶ ᱡᱚᱯᱲᱟᱣ ᱵᱟᱝ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱡᱩᱜᱽ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱸᱥᱠᱨᱤᱛ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱟᱨ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟᱼᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱩᱬᱩᱛ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾[᱑᱔] ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱢᱚᱜᱚᱫᱷ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱜᱮ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱪᱩᱨᱤᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱦᱚᱨᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱡᱚᱯᱲᱟᱣ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ, ᱢᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱫᱮᱵᱽᱱᱟᱜᱽᱨᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ᱾ ᱥᱮᱫᱟᱭ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱥᱤᱞᱮᱵᱟᱨᱤ ᱵᱽᱨᱟᱦᱢᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱮ ᱫᱮᱵᱽᱱᱟᱜᱽᱨᱤ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱞᱟᱥᱤᱠᱟᱞ ᱥᱚᱸᱥᱠᱨᱤᱛ ᱟᱨ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱤᱱᱫᱳᱼᱟᱨᱡᱚ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤᱠᱚ ᱚᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱜᱼᱟ, ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ (source) ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾[᱑᱖]

ᱱᱟᱦᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱠᱚ (ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱼᱟᱥᱟᱢᱤᱥ, ᱳᱰᱤᱭᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱳᱹᱭᱛᱷᱤᱞᱤ) ᱑᱔ᱟᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱑᱕ᱟᱱ ᱥᱟᱭᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱦᱟᱯᱲᱟᱢ ᱜᱳᱣᱲᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱮ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ᱾[᱕] ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ, ᱟᱥᱟᱢᱤᱥ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱛᱷᱤᱞᱟ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱜᱮ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱭᱮᱱ ᱨᱮᱦᱚᱸ ᱑᱓-᱑᱔ᱟᱱ ᱥᱟᱭᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱳᱰᱤᱭᱟ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱦᱤᱸᱥ ᱵᱟᱸᱠᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱨᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱩᱛᱱᱟᱹᱣ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱛᱮᱫ ᱜᱮ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱮᱱᱟ᱾[᱑᱗] ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱢᱳᱹᱭᱛᱷᱤᱞᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱤᱛ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱜᱮ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱜᱼᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱳᱹᱭᱛᱷᱤᱞᱤ ᱯᱚᱸᱰᱮᱛ ᱠᱚ (ᱵᱤᱥᱮᱥ ᱠᱟᱭᱛᱮ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱦᱟᱯᱲᱟᱢ) ᱱᱤᱛ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱥᱚᱸᱥᱠᱨᱤᱛ ᱚᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱪᱤᱠᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱮᱵᱷᱟᱨᱮᱫ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾[᱑᱘][᱑᱙]

ᱪᱤᱠᱤ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱭᱩᱱᱤᱠᱳᱰ ᱨᱮ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱟᱹᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. ᱑.᱐ ᱑.᱑ 'The theory of a Semitic origin for Brahmi, [as opposed to Indus origin], does have a strong, if not entirely conclusive, body of concrete evidence in its favor.' and 'For even many of the supporters of the Semitic hypothesis concede that, in Dani's words, "[T]he BrahmT letters are not literally 'derived' from the Semitic letters as is commonly understood, but are only based on them" (DIP 29).' (Salomon 1998:29)
  2. 'The terminology for the various premodern Brahmi-derived scripts is, however, largely unstandardized and typically made up ad hoc, due mainly to the lack of attested indigenous terms for many of them (2.1.1). D. C. Sircar broadly categorizes the stages of development into "Early," "Middle," and "Late Brahmi" periods, corresponding (in northern India) to the third through first centuries B.C., the first century B.C. through third century A.D., and the fourth through sixth centuries A.D., respectively (HEP 113), though others refer to his "Late Brahmi" as "Gupta script".' (Salomon 1998:19)
  3. "Around the late sixth century, the so-called Gupta script of northern India evolved into a distinct new script for which the preferred name is Siddhamatrka." (Salomon 1998:39)
  4. "In the northeast, the local derivative of Siddhamatrka was the script knownas Proto-Bengali or Gaudi, which was current from the tenth to the fourteenth centuries." (Salomon 1998:41)
  5. ᱕.᱐ ᱕.᱑ "This, in turn, gave rise to the modern eastern scripts, namely, Bengali-Assamese, Oriya, and Maithili, which became clearly differentiated around the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries." (Salomon 1998:41)
  6. "The Eastern Nagri script was first created to write Sanskrit and later adopted by regional languages like Bengali and Assamese. The Bengali Unicode block of characters is created from the Eastern Nagri script and contains character variants, like for the ‘r’, that is different in Bengali and Assamese." (Simard, Dopierala & Thaut 2020:5f)
  7. See "Parent Systems" on the right, and the citations therein.
  8. (Salomon 1998:41)
  9. " Bengalis will refer to the script as the 'Bengali script'.." (Brandt 2014:24)
  10. "Assamese has, like Bengali, a long literary tradition in this script which Assamese speakers naturally refer to as the 'Assamese script'." (Brandt 2014:25)
  11. "In fact, the term 'Eastern Nagari' seems to be the only designation which does not favour one or the other language. However, it is only applied in academic discourses, whereas the name 'Bengali script' dominates the global public sphere." (Brandt 2014:25)
  12. "Already the fact that most Bengalis will refer to the script of their language exclusively as the 'Bengali script', though it is used for many other languages as well, e.g. Assamese, Bishnupriya, Chakma, Meitei, Santali, etc. gives a glimpse of the dominant role of the Bengali language in the eastern part of South Asia (Brandt 2014:25–26)
  13. Bijan Kumar Roy, Subal Chandra Biswas and Parthasarathi Mukhopadhyay, Designing Unicode‐compliant Indic‐script based Institutional Digital Repository with special reference to Bengali, page 55, International Journal of Knowledge Content Development & Technology Vol.8, No.3, 53-67 (September, 2018)
  14. ᱑᱔.᱐ ᱑᱔.᱑ "(T)he script used today for Assamese and Bengali was, by origin, linked to the region and not any one specific modern language. Historically, it was in fact used for Old and Middle Indo-Aryan. Today it is used not only for other modern languages (e.g. Bishnupriya) but also still for Sanskrit." (Brandt & Sohoni 2018:7)
  15. Prabhakara, M S ᱪᱷᱟᱸᱪ:Usurped, The Hindu, 19 May 2005.
  16. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ComB
  17. "[T]he phase when the curved tops - so prominent now in many of the Oriya letters - were just appearing, initiating the parting of ways from the proto-[Bengali-Assamese-Maithili] phase. The beginning and progress of this trend can be noticed in many of the Orissa [inscriptions] of the 13th-14th centuries A.D." (Bhattacharya 1969:56f)
  18. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named MajR
  19. Atindra Mojumder, Bengali Language: Historical Grammar (Part 1), page 22, Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, 1972