ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ, ᱨᱟᱲᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
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ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ
ᱥᱮᱢᱤ ᱱᱚᱜᱚᱨ
ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ is located in Jharkhand
ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ
ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ
ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ is located in ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ
ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ
ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ
ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱞᱚᱠᱮᱥᱚᱱ ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱠᱷᱚᱸᱰ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ
Coordinates: 23°00′50″N 85°16′21″E / 23.0140203°N 85.2724457°E / 23.0140203; 85.2724457Coordinates: 23°00′50″N 85°16′21″E / 23.0140203°N 85.2724457°E / 23.0140203; 85.2724457
ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ  ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ
ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱠᱷᱚᱸᱰ
ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ
ᱩᱥᱩᱞ 611 ᱢᱤᱴᱚᱨ (2005 ᱯᱷᱩᱴ)
ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱟ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ (᱒᱐᱑᱑)
 • ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱜᱩᱴ ᱓᱖᱓᱙᱐
ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ
 • ᱟᱹᱢᱟᱞᱮᱛ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱤ, ᱱᱟᱜᱯᱩᱨᱤ, ᱢᱩᱱᱰᱟᱨᱤ,
IST (UTC+5:30)
ᱯᱤᱱ ᱠᱳᱰ 835210
ᱴᱮᱞᱤᱯᱷᱚᱱ ᱠᱚᱰ 06528
ᱜᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱨᱤᱡᱤᱥᱴᱨᱤ JH-23
ᱣᱮᱵᱽᱥᱟᱭᱤᱴ http://khunti.nic.in/

ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱠᱷᱚᱸᱰ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱦᱮᱰᱠᱩᱣᱟᱴᱚᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱠᱚᱸᱧᱮ ᱪᱷᱚᱴᱟᱱᱚᱜᱯᱩᱨ ᱛᱷᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱟᱨᱜᱮᱞᱯᱩᱱ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱝ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱠᱷᱚᱸᱰ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱒ ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱒᱐᱐᱗ ᱨᱮ ᱨᱟᱺᱪᱤ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱦᱨᱮ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ ᱨᱩᱯ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱤᱨᱥᱟᱹ ᱟᱱᱫᱚᱞᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱠᱟᱢᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱸᱯ ᱛᱮ ᱥᱮᱱᱚᱝ ᱟᱠᱚ ᱾ ᱞᱚᱦᱟᱨᱫᱟᱜᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱒᱐᱑᱑ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ, ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱠᱷᱚᱸᱰ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱫᱚᱥᱟᱨ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱠᱚᱢ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱮᱞ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ (᱒᱔ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱫᱚ) ᱾ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱰ ᱠᱚᱨᱤᱰᱚᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾

ᱚᱛᱱᱚᱜ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ 23°04′19″N 85°16′49″E / 23.0718800°N 85.2802120°E / 23.0718800; 85.2802120 ᱠᱚᱸᱧᱮ ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱠᱷᱚᱸᱰ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱦᱚᱭ ᱫᱟᱦ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱦᱚᱭ ᱫᱟᱦ ᱴᱨᱚᱯᱤᱠᱟᱞ (Tropical) ᱡᱟᱹᱯᱩᱫ ᱵᱤᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱰᱮᱦᱮᱨ ᱛᱮᱫ ᱡᱟᱹᱯᱩᱫ ᱡᱩᱞᱟᱭ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱟ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱜᱩᱴ ᱡᱟᱹᱯᱩᱫ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱙᱐% ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱰᱮᱦᱮᱨ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱟ ᱾

ᱦᱚᱲ ᱮᱞ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

᱒᱐᱑᱑ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ,[᱑] ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱮᱞ ᱓᱖᱓᱙᱐ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱚᱲᱟ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱮᱞ ᱕᱒% ᱟᱨ ᱛᱤᱨᱞᱟᱹ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱔᱘% ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱫᱚᱨ ᱖᱙% ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ, ᱟᱫᱚ ᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱕᱙.᱕ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱰᱮᱦᱮᱨ ᱜᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱺ ᱠᱚᱲᱟ ᱟᱜ ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱗᱕% ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ, ᱟᱨ ᱛᱤᱨᱞᱟᱹ ᱟᱜ ᱥᱮᱪᱮᱫ ᱖᱑% ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ ᱨᱮ, ᱑᱕% ᱦᱚᱲ ᱮᱞ ᱖ ᱥᱟᱞ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱠᱚᱢ ᱵᱚᱪᱷᱚᱨ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱚᱣᱟ ᱾

ᱭᱩᱴᱤᱞᱤᱴᱤ ᱥᱟᱨᱵᱤᱥ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱫᱟᱦ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱯᱞᱟᱭ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱭᱩᱴᱤᱞᱤᱴᱤ ᱥᱮᱵᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱢᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ, ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸᱭ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱛᱤ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱛᱮ ᱡᱚᱛᱚ ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱷᱩᱞᱮ ᱠᱩᱸᱧ ᱵᱟᱝᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱫᱟᱦ ᱠᱤᱨᱤᱧ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱦᱮᱸᱰ ᱯᱟᱸᱯ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱭᱩᱴᱤᱞᱤᱴᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱰᱟᱠ ᱥᱮᱵᱟ ᱰᱮᱦᱮᱨ ᱥᱠᱤᱞᱯᱷᱩᱞ ᱯᱨᱚᱵᱷᱮᱴ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱟ ᱾

ᱦᱤᱞᱴᱷᱠᱮᱨ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱤᱵᱤᱞ ᱟᱥᱯᱟᱛᱟᱞ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱤᱥᱩᱣᱟᱹ ᱠᱚ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱢᱮᱰᱤᱠᱟᱞ ᱵᱮᱵᱚᱥᱛᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱦᱚᱨ ᱰᱟᱦᱟᱨ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱩᱰᱟᱹᱱ ᱜᱟᱰᱤ ᱛᱮ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱨᱟᱺᱪᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱤᱨᱥᱟᱹ ᱢᱩᱸᱰᱟᱹ ᱡᱮᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱩᱰᱟᱹᱱ ᱰᱟᱹᱦᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱩᱰᱟᱹᱱ ᱰᱟᱹᱦᱤ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱟᱣᱟ ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱥᱩᱨᱯᱩᱨ ᱓᱓ ᱠᱤᱞᱚᱢᱤᱴᱚᱨ ᱥᱟᱸᱜᱤᱧ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱨᱮᱞ ᱜᱟᱰᱤ ᱛᱮ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱨᱮᱞ ᱥᱴᱮᱥᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱱᱩᱜ ᱟ ᱾ ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱥᱴᱮᱥᱚᱱ ᱦᱟᱴᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱞ ᱥᱴᱮᱥᱚᱱ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱰᱮᱦᱮᱨ ᱛᱮᱫ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱦᱟᱴᱤᱭᱟ ᱨᱮᱞ ᱥᱴᱮᱥᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱝᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱨᱟᱺᱪᱤ ᱥᱴᱮᱥᱚᱱ ᱥᱴᱮᱥᱚᱱ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱥᱮᱴᱮᱨᱚᱜ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱟᱥ ᱵᱟᱝᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱴᱮᱠᱥᱤ ᱥᱮᱵᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱮᱵᱚᱥᱛᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱧᱮᱧᱮᱞ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱴᱟᱜ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱯᱟᱸᱪᱜᱷᱟᱜᱷ ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱱᱟ : ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤᱼᱪᱟᱸᱭᱵᱟᱥᱟ ᱰᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱑᱕  ᱠᱤᱞᱚᱢᱤᱴᱚᱨ ᱥᱟᱸᱜᱤᱧ ᱯᱟᱸᱪᱜᱷᱟᱜᱷ ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱱᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱟᱣᱟ ᱢᱚᱲᱮ ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱱᱟ ᱩᱥᱩᱞ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱚᱸᱰᱚᱠᱚ ᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱱᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱫᱟᱦ ᱯᱤᱠᱱᱤᱠ ᱥᱯᱚᱨᱴ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱩᱯ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ, ᱱᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱱᱟᱜ ᱫᱟᱦ ᱞᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱩᱢᱩᱜ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱡᱤᱞ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱨᱠ : ᱯᱟᱨᱠ ᱨᱮ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱵᱟᱜᱟᱱ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ, ᱜᱤᱫᱽᱨᱟᱹ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱯᱟᱴᱷᱰᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱮᱱᱮᱡ ᱯᱟᱨᱠ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱩᱬ ᱡᱟᱴᱟᱜ (attraction) ᱯᱟᱨᱠ ᱥᱟᱯᱷᱟᱨᱤ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱟᱸᱜᱽᱨᱟᱵᱟᱫᱤ ᱢᱚᱱᱫᱤᱨ : ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱟᱸᱜᱽᱨᱟᱵᱟᱫᱤ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱢᱚᱱᱫᱤᱨ ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱚᱱᱫᱤᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱵᱚᱫᱚᱞ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱨᱤᱥᱤ ᱥᱟᱸᱠᱨᱟᱪᱟᱨᱭ ᱥᱣᱟᱢᱤ ᱥᱣᱟᱨᱩᱯᱟᱪᱟᱸᱫ ᱥᱚᱨᱥᱚᱛᱤ ᱤᱫᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱢᱨᱮᱥᱚᱨ ᱫᱷᱟᱢ ᱠᱮᱫᱼᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱾ ᱢᱚᱱᱫᱤᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱣᱟᱱ ᱥᱤᱵᱷ, ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱣᱟᱱ ᱜᱚᱱᱮᱥ, ᱨᱟᱢᱼᱥᱤᱛᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱟᱱᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱦᱤᱱᱫᱩ ᱫᱮᱣᱛᱟ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱵᱮᱥ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱯᱮᱨᱣᱟᱜᱷᱟᱜ : ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱠᱷᱚᱸᱰ ᱨᱮ ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱱᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱛᱚᱨᱯᱟ ᱵᱞᱚᱠ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱵᱩᱨᱩ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱫᱚ, ᱨᱟᱵᱟᱝ ᱡᱚᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱨᱤᱥᱢᱟᱥ ᱟᱨ ᱱᱟᱣᱟ ᱥᱟᱞ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱩᱨᱥᱩᱨᱯᱩᱨ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱯᱤᱠᱱᱤᱠ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱯᱟᱛᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱮᱱᱮᱡ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱠᱷᱩᱸᱴᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱜ ᱦᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱚᱲᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱯᱟᱛᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱨᱟᱹᱥᱠᱟᱹ ᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱟᱱᱟᱣᱟ, ᱛᱤᱨᱞᱟᱹ ᱟᱨ ᱮᱥᱯᱮᱥᱮᱞ (special) ᱨᱩᱯ ᱛᱮ ᱫᱮᱦᱟᱛ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱯᱟᱛᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱯᱷᱟᱹᱜᱩᱱ, ᱥᱟᱨᱦᱩᱞ, ᱫᱟᱥᱮᱱ, ᱴᱩᱥᱩ, ᱠᱟᱨᱟᱢ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱾

ᱡᱟᱫᱩᱨ ᱥᱩᱥᱩᱱ, ᱠᱟᱨᱟᱢ ᱥᱩᱥᱩᱱ (ᱮᱱᱮᱡ)[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱨᱤᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱜᱮ ᱟᱹᱫᱤᱵᱟᱹᱥᱤ ᱮᱱᱮᱡ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱮᱱᱚᱜ ᱟ ᱟᱫᱚ ᱟᱥᱞᱤ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱚ ᱡᱟᱫᱩᱨ ᱥᱩᱥᱩᱱ (ᱮᱱᱮᱡ), ᱠᱟᱨᱟᱢ ᱥᱩᱥᱩᱱ (ᱮᱱᱮᱡ) ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱮᱱᱮᱡ ᱚᱠᱟᱼᱚᱠᱟ ᱦᱤᱞᱚᱜ ᱠᱚ ᱮᱱᱮᱡ ᱟ ᱾

ᱟᱹᱫᱤᱵᱟᱹᱥᱤ ᱮᱱᱮᱡ

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.