ᱯᱮᱨᱩ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ, ᱨᱟᱲᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
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ᱯᱮᱨᱩ(ᱥᱯᱮᱱᱤᱥ; Perú) ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱟᱢᱮᱨᱤᱠᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱪᱮ-ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱠᱟᱫ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱯᱮᱨᱩ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱯᱨᱚᱥᱟᱱᱛ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱫᱚᱨᱭᱟ, ᱮᱛᱚᱢ-ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱤᱠᱩᱣᱟᱰᱚᱨ, ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱠᱚᱞᱚᱢᱵᱤᱭᱟ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱵᱨᱟᱡᱤᱞ, ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ-ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱵᱚᱞᱤᱵᱷᱤᱭᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱫᱚ ᱪᱤᱞᱤ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱟᱱᱤᱡᱽ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱫᱚ ᱞᱤᱢᱟ᱾ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ-ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ-ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱫ ᱟᱱᱫᱮᱥ ᱵᱩᱨᱩᱢᱟᱞᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾

ᱯᱮᱨᱩ ᱯᱨᱚᱡᱟᱛᱚᱱᱛᱨᱚ
República del Perú  (Spanish)
ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱟᱹᱱᱟᱹᱭᱩᱨ : "Firme y feliz por la unión" (ᱥᱯᱮᱱᱤᱥ)
"We are free, may we always be so"
ᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱥᱮᱱᱮᱨᱮᱧHimno Nacional del Perú
"ᱯᱮᱨᱩ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱥᱮᱨᱮᱧ"


ᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱥᱮᱞ
Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg
ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱟᱢᱮᱨᱤᱠᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱯᱮᱨᱩ ᱦᱟᱹᱨᱭᱟᱹᱲ ᱨᱚᱝ ᱛᱮ
ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱜᱟᱲᱞᱤᱢᱟ
Largest city ᱞᱤᱢᱟ
ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱥᱯᱮᱱᱤᱥ
ᱢᱤᱫ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱫ ᱯᱮᱨᱩᱵᱷᱤᱭᱟᱱ
ᱥᱚᱨᱠᱟᱨ Constitutional republic[᱑][᱒]
 -  President ᱢᱟᱨᱴᱤᱱ ᱵᱷᱤᱡᱽᱠᱟᱨᱟ
 -  Vice President ᱢᱟᱨᱥᱤᱱᱮᱱᱥ ᱮᱨᱤᱭᱳᱡ
 -  ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱜᱚᱢᱠᱮ ᱵᱷᱤᱥᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱡᱮᱵᱟᱞᱚᱥ
ᱞᱮᱡᱤᱥᱞᱟᱪᱚᱨ Congress of the Republic
ᱯᱷᱩᱱᱩᱨᱜᱟᱹᱞ ᱮᱥᱯᱮᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
 -  ᱩᱪᱷᱱᱟᱣ ᱒᱘ ᱡᱩᱞᱟᱭ ᱑᱘᱒᱑ 
 -  Consolidated ᱙ ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ ᱑᱘᱒᱔ 
 -  Recognized ᱑᱔ ᱟᱜᱚᱥᱴ ᱑᱘᱗᱙ 
ᱮᱨᱤᱭᱟ
 -  ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱜᱩᱴ ᱑,᱒᱘᱕,᱒᱑᱖ km2 (19th)
᱔᱙᱖,᱒᱒᱕  
 -  ᱫᱟᱜ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ (%) 0.41
ᱦᱚᱲᱮᱞ
 -  2018 ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱟ 32,677,822[᱓] (41st)
 -  2007 census 28,220,764 
 -  ᱥᱟᱝᱜᱮ 23/ᱠᱤᱹᱢᱤᱹ 
᱕᱗/ᱜᱟᱺᱴ ᱢᱤᱹ
ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱜᱩᱴ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱡᱽ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱨᱡᱟᱣ (ᱠᱤᱨᱤᱧ ᱫᱟᱲᱮ ᱵᱟᱨᱟᱵᱟᱹᱨᱤ) 2018 ᱯᱟᱭᱛᱟᱨ
 -  ᱡᱚᱛᱚᱨᱮ $450.148  ᱵᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ[᱓] (38th)
 -  ᱦᱚᱲ ᱯᱤᱪᱷᱤ $13,993[᱓] (90th)
ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱜᱩᱴ ᱜᱷᱟᱨᱚᱡᱽ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱨᱡᱟᱣ (ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱦᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ) 2018 ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱥᱚᱝ
 -  ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟᱜᱩᱴ $231.567  ᱵᱤᱞᱤᱭᱚᱱ[᱓] (42th)
 -  ᱦᱚᱲ ᱯᱤᱪᱷᱤ $7,198[᱓] (82वां)
ᱡᱤᱱᱤ (2015) 44.3 
ᱢᱟᱹᱱᱢᱤ ᱩᱛᱱᱟᱹᱣ ᱩᱱᱩᱫᱩᱜ (2015) 0.740 (87th)
ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤ ᱥᱳᱞ (PEN)
ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱮᱞᱟᱠᱟ ᱯᱤᱤᱴᱤ (UTC−5)
ᱢᱟᱹᱦᱤᱛ ᱜᱚᱲᱦᱚᱱ dd.mm.yyyy
ᱦᱚᱨ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱨᱮ ᱛᱮ ᱛᱟᱲᱟᱢ ᱢᱮ right
ᱤᱱᱴᱚᱨᱱᱮᱴ ᱴᱤᱹᱮᱞᱹᱰᱤᱹ .pe
ᱯᱷᱚᱱ ᱠᱳᱰ +51

ᱯᱮᱨᱩ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱑᱙ ᱮᱞ‌ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱟᱢᱮᱨᱤᱠᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱔ ᱮᱞ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱯᱮᱨᱩ ᱥᱮᱫᱟᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱤᱱᱠᱟ ᱥᱟᱵᱨᱟᱡᱽᱭᱚ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱴᱟ ᱛᱟᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱑᱖ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱨᱮ ᱤᱱᱠᱟ ᱥᱟᱵᱨᱟᱡᱽᱭᱚ ᱥᱯᱮᱱᱤᱥ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱦᱤᱨᱟᱹᱣ ᱛᱟᱭᱟᱢ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱯᱮᱱᱤᱥ ᱩᱯᱚᱱᱤᱵᱮᱥ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱤᱞᱮᱫ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ᱾ ᱟᱱᱫᱮᱥ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱳᱱᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱨᱩᱯᱟᱹ ᱠᱷᱟᱫᱟᱱ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱛᱮ ᱥᱯᱮᱱᱤᱥ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱟᱢᱮᱨᱤᱠᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱢᱯᱚᱫ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱟᱲᱮ(Energy) ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱛᱟᱞᱢᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱠᱮᱫᱟ᱾ ᱑᱙ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱑᱘᱒᱑ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱯᱮᱨᱩ ᱮᱥᱯᱮᱱ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱯᱷᱩᱱᱩᱨᱜᱟᱹᱞ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ᱾

ᱚᱛᱱᱚᱜ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱢᱟᱱᱩ ᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱵᱟᱜᱟᱱ ᱮᱢᱟᱡᱚᱱ,ᱯᱮᱨᱩ, ᱵᱩᱨᱩ ᱮᱞᱯᱟᱢᱟᱭᱳ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱟᱨᱟᱠᱟᱥ ᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱨᱤᱡᱟᱨᱵᱷ

ᱯᱮᱨᱩ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱟᱢᱮᱨᱤᱠᱟ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱪᱮ-ᱛᱟᱞᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱠᱟᱫ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱯᱨᱚᱥᱟᱱᱛ ᱢᱟᱦᱟᱫᱚᱨᱭᱟ ᱥᱟᱞᱟᱜ ᱡᱚᱯᱨᱟᱣ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱚᱛᱦᱟᱥᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱑,᱒᱘᱕,᱒᱑᱖ ᱠᱤᱢᱤ² ᱛᱮ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ᱾ ᱯᱮᱨᱩ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱚᱰᱟᱨ ᱵᱨᱟᱡᱤᱞ, ᱪᱤᱞᱤ, ᱠᱚᱞᱚᱢᱵᱤᱭᱟ, ᱵᱚᱞᱤᱵᱷᱤᱭᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱤᱠᱩᱣᱟᱰᱚᱨ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱥᱟᱞᱟᱜ ᱡᱚᱯᱨᱟᱣ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱟᱨ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱫ ᱟᱱᱫᱮᱥ ᱵᱩᱨᱩᱢᱟᱞᱟ ᱟᱴᱮᱫ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱱᱚᱰᱮ ᱜᱮ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱡᱟᱜᱟ ᱦᱩᱣᱟᱥᱠᱟᱨᱟᱱ ᱖,᱗᱖᱘ ᱢᱤᱴᱟᱨ (᱒᱒,᱒0᱕ ᱯᱷᱩᱴ) ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾[᱔]

ᱦᱩᱣᱟᱥᱠᱟᱨᱟᱱ ᱡᱟᱹᱛᱤᱭᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱵᱟᱜᱟᱱ

ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤᱟᱹᱨᱤ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱯᱮᱨᱩ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱛᱤᱦᱤᱧ ᱫᱤᱱ ᱦᱚ ᱠᱷᱟᱫᱟᱱ ᱢᱩᱨᱩᱛ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱵᱮᱜᱚᱨ ᱦᱚ ᱪᱟᱥᱵᱟᱥ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱟᱠᱩ ᱥᱟᱵ ᱦᱚ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ᱾ ᱠᱟᱹᱣᱰᱤᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱯᱟᱦᱟᱴᱟ ᱧᱮᱧᱮᱞᱤᱭᱟᱹ(Tourism) ᱦᱚ ᱦᱤᱡᱩᱜ-ᱟ᱾ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱤᱱᱠᱟ ᱥᱟᱵᱨᱟᱡᱽᱭᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱨᱟᱹᱯᱩᱛ ᱥᱟᱨᱮᱡᱽ, ᱟᱱᱫᱮᱥ ᱵᱩᱨᱩ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱟᱪᱩ ᱯᱤᱪᱩ ᱧᱮᱧᱮᱞ ᱞᱟᱹᱜᱤᱫ ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱫᱤᱥᱚᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱤᱡᱩᱜ-ᱟ᱾

ᱞᱟᱠᱪᱟᱨ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

Economy

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. Shugart, Matthew Søberg (ᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. United States: University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ 2008. Retrieved 31 ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ 2017.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  2. Shugart, Matthew Søberg (ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). French Politics. Palgrave Macmillan UK. 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087Freely accessible. ISSN 1476-3427. OCLC 6895745903. Retrieved 31 ᱚᱜᱚᱥᱴ 2017. Only in Latin America have all new democracies retained a pure presidential form, except for Peru (president-parliamentary) and Bolivia (assembly-independent). 
  3. ᱓.᱐ ᱓.᱑ ᱓.᱒ ᱓.᱓ ᱓.᱔ "Peru". International Monetary Fund. 
  4. Andes Handbook, Huascarán Archived ᱘ ᱚᱠᱴᱚᱵᱚᱨ ᱒᱐᱑᱖ at the Wayback Machine.. 2 June 2002.