ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ

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ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ
ᱯᱚᱪᱷᱤᱢ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ
ᱯᱚᱪᱷᱤᱢ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱩᱴᱟ.
ᱯᱚᱪᱷᱤᱢ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱩᱴᱟ.
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 • ᱵᱤᱫᱷᱟᱱᱥᱚᱵᱷᱟ ᱢᱟᱹᱪᱤ ᱥᱟᱸᱭᱛᱷᱤᱭᱟᱹ
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ᱮᱨᱤᱭᱟ
 • ᱜᱩᱴ 4545 ᱠᱤᱢᱤ (1755 ᱜᱟᱺᱴ ᱢᱟᱭᱤᱞ)
ᱞᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱡᱚᱠᱷᱟ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ (᱒᱐᱑᱑)
 • ᱜᱩᱴ ᱓,᱕᱐᱒,᱔᱐᱔
 • ᱰᱮᱱᱥᱤᱴᱤ 770/ᱠᱤᱢᱤ2 (2000/ᱜᱟᱺᱴ ᱢᱟᱹᱭᱤᱞ)
 • ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱨ ᱔᱔᱙,᱔᱔᱘
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ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱥᱤᱧᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱚᱪᱷᱤᱢ ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱚᱨᱫᱷᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱵᱤᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ। ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱩᱬᱩᱛ ᱠᱟᱹᱢᱤᱭᱟᱹᱢᱮᱞᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱤᱣᱨᱤ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ। ᱨᱟᱢᱯᱩᱨᱦᱟᱴ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱚᱞᱯᱩᱨ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱨᱭᱟ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱥᱟᱦᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ।

ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

"ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ" ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱫᱚ "ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢᱤ" ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱡᱟᱸᱦᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱫ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ "ᱵᱤᱨ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱫᱤᱥᱟᱹᱢ"। ᱟᱨᱦᱚ ᱚᱠᱚᱭ ᱠᱚᱫᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱞᱟᱹᱭᱼᱟ, ᱵᱟᱹᱜᱽᱫᱤ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱵᱤᱨ ᱢᱚᱞᱞᱚ ᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ । ᱵᱤᱨ ᱢᱚᱞᱞᱚ ᱑᱕᱐᱑ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱑᱕᱕᱔ ᱥᱟᱞ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱫ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱠᱮ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ।ᱟᱨᱦᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱞᱟᱹᱭᱼᱟ, ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ ᱯᱟᱹᱨᱥᱤ ᱛᱮ ᱵᱤᱨ ᱟᱹᱲᱟᱹ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱫ ᱵᱤᱨ; ᱥᱮ, ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱢᱮᱱᱮᱫ ᱵᱤᱨ/ᱜᱟᱡᱟᱲ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱫᱟᱲᱮᱭᱟᱜᱼᱟ ।

ᱵᱟᱝᱞᱟᱛᱮ ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱫᱚ "ᱨᱟᱝᱜᱟ ᱢᱟᱴᱤᱨ ᱫᱮᱥ" ᱠᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜᱼᱟ। [᱑]

ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱚᱛᱱᱚᱠ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱟᱨ ᱞᱟᱹᱭᱼᱞᱟᱠᱪᱟᱨ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱮᱴᱟᱜ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱠᱟᱺᱪᱽ ᱡᱩᱫᱟᱹ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ । ᱪᱷᱚᱴᱟᱱᱟᱜᱽᱯᱩᱨ ᱢᱟᱞᱵᱷᱩᱢᱤ ᱥᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱩᱪᱪᱷᱤᱢ ᱚᱸᱪᱚᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱤᱨ ᱜᱟᱡᱟᱲᱛᱮ ᱮᱥᱮᱫ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ । ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱯᱩᱵ ᱱᱟᱠᱷᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱚᱞᱤ ᱦᱟᱥᱟ ᱡᱚᱢᱤᱨᱮ ᱦᱮᱡ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ।[᱒]

ᱚᱛᱱᱚᱜ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱶᱛᱟ ᱩᱛᱷᱱᱟᱹᱣ ᱵᱞᱚᱠ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱭᱩᱱᱤᱥᱤᱯᱟᱞᱤᱴᱤ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱚ

ᱠᱚᱨᱠᱚᱴᱠᱨᱟᱱᱛᱤ ᱨᱮᱠᱷᱟ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱒᱓° ᱓᱒' ᱓᱐" ᱟᱨ ᱒᱔° ᱓᱕' ᱐" ᱩᱛᱛᱚᱨ ᱚᱠᱷᱟᱝᱥᱚ ᱟᱨ ᱘᱗° ᱕' ᱔᱕" ᱟᱨ ᱘᱘° ᱑' ᱔᱐" ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱫᱨᱟᱜᱷᱤᱢᱟᱝᱥᱚ ᱦᱟᱹᱵᱤᱫ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ, ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱜᱩᱴ ᱔᱕᱔᱕ ᱪᱟᱹᱣᱠᱟᱹ ᱠᱤᱞᱳᱢᱤᱴᱟᱨ (᱑,᱗᱕᱕ ᱪᱟᱹᱣᱠᱟᱹ ᱢᱟᱭᱤᱞ) ᱛᱮ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ । ᱯᱮ ᱠᱩᱱ ᱟᱠᱟᱨ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱞᱟᱛᱟᱨ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱚᱡᱚᱭ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱫᱚ ᱪᱩᱭᱞᱩ ᱢᱟᱪᱷᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱡᱚᱭ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ ᱵᱚᱨᱫᱷᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱤᱢᱟᱹᱱᱟᱭ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱷᱟᱨᱠᱷᱚᱸᱰ ᱯᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱢᱩᱨᱥᱤᱫᱟᱵᱟᱫᱽ ᱟᱨ ᱵᱚᱨᱫᱷᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱺᱡᱽ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ।[᱓][᱔][᱕] ᱚᱛᱱᱚᱜ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱨ ᱵᱤᱪᱟᱨᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱪᱷᱚᱴᱟᱱᱟᱜᱽᱯᱩᱨ ᱢᱟᱞᱵᱷᱩᱢᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝᱼᱠᱚᱭᱮ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ; ᱡᱟᱸᱦᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱰᱷᱟᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱯᱷᱮᱰ ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱛᱮ ᱜᱚᱝᱜᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱥᱟ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ।

ᱢᱟᱢᱟ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽᱱᱟ ᱵᱩᱨᱩ

ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱱᱟᱠᱷᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱮᱫᱟᱭ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱚᱡᱽᱡᱚᱵᱷᱩᱢᱤ ᱥᱮ ᱵᱚᱡᱽᱡᱨᱚᱵᱷᱩᱢᱤ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱮ ᱩᱯᱨᱩᱢ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ।[᱒][᱖] ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱴᱟᱝ ᱥᱩᱢᱩᱝ ᱵᱩᱨᱩ ᱢᱟᱢᱟ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽᱱᱟ ᱵᱩᱨᱩ,ᱫᱩᱵᱽᱨᱟᱡᱽᱯᱩᱨ ᱥᱚᱦᱚᱨ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ । ᱱᱟᱦᱟᱜ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱹᱝ ᱧᱮᱧᱮᱞ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱩᱯᱨᱩᱢᱮ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱟ ।

ᱦᱚᱭ ᱦᱤᱥᱤᱫ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱪᱟᱹᱛ ᱵᱟᱹᱭᱥᱟᱹᱠ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱱ ᱫᱤᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱚᱸᱰᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱞᱚᱞᱚ ᱔᱐° ᱥᱮᱱᱴᱤᱜᱨᱮᱰ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮᱱᱟ; ᱨᱟᱵᱟᱝ ᱨᱤᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱨᱦᱚ ᱑᱐° ᱥᱮᱱᱴᱤᱜᱨᱮᱰ ᱯᱷᱮᱰ ᱦᱤᱡᱩᱜᱼᱟ।[᱔] ᱧᱮᱞ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱫᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱹᱥᱛᱤ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜᱼᱟ। ᱡᱟᱹᱯᱩᱫ ᱫᱤᱱ (ᱡᱩᱱᱼᱥᱮᱯᱴᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ) ᱨᱟᱡᱽᱱᱚᱜᱚᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱱᱟᱱᱩᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟᱠᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱫᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱹᱨᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱞ ᱫᱚ ᱑᱔᱐᱕ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱢᱤᱴᱟᱨ ᱟᱨ ᱑᱒᱑᱒ ᱢᱤᱞᱤᱢᱤᱴᱟᱨ।[᱒][᱕]

ᱜᱟᱰᱟ ᱠᱚ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ ᱞᱤᱸᱜᱤ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱣᱟᱠᱚ ᱢᱩᱫᱨᱮ ᱚᱡᱚᱭ,ᱢᱚᱭᱩᱨᱟᱠᱠᱷᱤ (ᱢᱳᱨ),ᱠᱳᱯᱟᱭ,ᱵᱚᱠᱨᱮᱥᱚᱨ, ᱵᱨᱟᱢᱽᱢᱚᱱᱤ, ᱫᱟᱨᱚᱠᱟ, ᱦᱤᱝᱞᱟ, ᱪᱚᱯᱽᱞᱟ, ᱵᱟᱸᱥᱞᱚᱭ, ᱯᱟᱜᱞᱟ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ। [᱓][᱔] ᱥᱤᱭᱩᱲᱤ ᱡᱟᱯᱟᱜ ᱢᱚᱭᱩᱨᱟᱠᱠᱷᱤᱨᱮ ᱛᱤᱞᱯᱟᱲᱟ ᱵᱟᱸᱫᱷᱽ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢᱛᱮ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱝ ᱯᱨᱚᱠᱚᱞᱯᱚ ᱛᱟᱞᱟᱛᱮ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱒᱔᱒᱘ ᱵᱚᱨᱜᱚ ᱠᱤᱞᱚᱢᱤᱴᱟᱨ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱟᱜ ᱫᱚᱦᱚ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱮᱵᱚᱥᱛᱟ ᱦᱩᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ।[᱗] ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱨᱟᱭ ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱪᱷᱚᱴᱟᱱᱟᱜᱽᱯᱩᱨ ᱢᱟᱞᱵᱷᱩᱢᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱜ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱱᱟᱠᱷᱟ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱞᱤᱸᱜᱤ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱟᱹᱯᱩᱫ ᱫᱤᱱ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱜᱟᱰᱟ ᱠᱚᱨᱮ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱫᱟᱜ ᱯᱮᱨᱮᱡᱚᱜᱼᱟ; ᱢᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱥᱤᱛᱩᱝ ᱨᱤᱛᱩ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱜᱟᱰᱟᱠᱚ ᱫᱟᱜ ᱟᱸᱡᱮᱫ ᱪᱟᱵᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱮᱱ ᱫᱟᱜ ᱯᱮᱨᱮᱪ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱮᱱ ᱫᱟᱜ ᱟᱸᱡᱮᱫ ᱦᱤᱡᱩᱜ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱜᱨᱮ ᱡᱮᱢᱚᱱ ᱦᱚᱲᱼᱟᱜ ᱡᱤᱣᱤ ᱟᱨ ᱡᱤᱱᱤᱥ ᱠᱚ ᱱᱚᱥᱴᱚᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱠᱚᱜᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱡᱤᱭᱟᱹᱱ ᱟᱹᱲᱤᱥ ᱪᱟᱵᱟᱜᱼᱟ ।[᱒][᱘]

ᱱᱟᱜᱟᱢ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱥᱩᱨᱩᱞ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱴᱮᱨᱟᱠᱳᱴᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱥᱟᱡᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱥᱤᱵ ᱢᱳᱱᱫᱤᱨ

ᱱᱟᱦᱟᱜ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱟᱱ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱮᱫᱟᱭ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱜᱮ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱛᱮ ᱯᱮᱨᱮᱪ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱹᱭᱩᱥᱜᱽᱨᱟᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱯᱟᱹᱱᱰᱩᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱟᱜ ᱰᱷᱤᱵᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱛᱟᱢᱟᱼᱫᱷᱤᱨᱤ ᱡᱩᱜ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱤᱪᱷᱩ ᱪᱤᱠᱷᱱᱟᱹ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ ।[᱙] ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱷᱤᱨᱤ ᱡᱩᱜ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱪᱤᱠᱷᱱᱟᱹ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱧᱟᱢ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ [᱑᱐]

ᱟᱪᱟᱨᱟᱝᱜᱚ ᱥᱩᱛᱨᱚ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢᱟᱱ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱝ ᱢᱟᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱹᱭᱱᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱯᱚᱛᱚᱵ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱛᱷᱟ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ,ᱥᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱢᱩᱪᱟᱹᱫ (᱒᱔ ᱟᱱ) ᱛᱤᱨᱛᱷᱚᱝᱠᱚᱨ ᱢᱚᱦᱟᱵᱤᱨ ᱫᱟᱲᱟᱱ ᱫᱟᱲᱟᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱭ ᱦᱮᱪ ᱥᱮᱴᱮᱨ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ । ᱚᱱᱟ ᱯᱚᱛᱚᱵ ᱨᱮᱠᱷᱨᱤᱥᱴᱟᱵᱽ ᱫᱚ ᱞᱟᱦᱟ ᱢᱚᱬᱮ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟᱵᱚᱡᱽᱡᱚᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱩᱵᱽᱵᱚᱵᱷᱩᱢᱤ (ᱡᱟ.ᱱᱤᱪ ᱪᱚ ᱥᱩᱠᱠᱷᱚ) ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱞᱟᱲᱟᱨ ᱯᱚᱛᱷᱤᱱ ᱫᱮᱥ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱮ ᱩᱯᱨᱩᱢ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ।[᱓][᱖][᱑᱑] ᱚᱠᱚᱭ ᱚᱠᱚᱭ ᱚᱹᱭᱛᱤᱦᱟᱥᱤᱠ ᱠᱚᱫᱚ ᱠᱚ ᱞᱟᱹᱭᱼᱟ ᱨᱟᱲ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮ[ [ᱵᱳᱹᱭᱫᱷᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱟᱢ|ᱵᱳᱹᱭᱫᱷᱚ]] ᱟᱨ ᱡᱚᱭᱱᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱨᱚᱪᱟᱨ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱟᱨᱡᱤᱠᱚᱨᱚᱱ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱝ ᱚᱝᱥᱚ।[᱑᱒] ᱫᱤᱵᱽᱵᱟᱵᱚᱫᱟᱱ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱟᱱ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱹᱝ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱚᱢ ᱯᱚᱛᱚᱵ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱰᱟᱠᱴᱚᱨ ᱚᱛᱩᱞ ᱥᱩᱨ ᱮ ᱞᱟ.ᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱟ ᱡᱮ ᱜᱳᱹᱭᱛᱚᱢ ᱵᱩᱫᱽᱫᱷᱚ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱪᱮᱛᱟᱱ ᱛᱮ ᱥᱟᱸᱜᱷᱟᱲ ᱠᱟᱛᱮᱜ ᱯᱩᱱᱰᱨᱚᱵᱚᱨᱫᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱚᱢᱚᱛᱚᱴ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱭ ᱥᱮᱱ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ।[᱑᱓]

ᱨᱟᱲᱷ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱠᱳᱱᱳ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱢᱳᱹᱭᱨᱡᱚ ᱥᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱽᱡᱚᱨᱮ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱜᱩᱯᱛᱚ ᱥᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱽᱡᱚ, ᱥᱚᱥᱟᱱ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱨ ᱦᱚᱨᱥᱚᱵᱚᱨᱫᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱽᱡᱚ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ। ᱦᱚᱨᱥᱚᱵᱚᱨᱫᱷᱚᱱ ᱥᱟᱢᱨᱟᱡᱽᱡᱚ ᱨᱟ.ᱯᱩᱫ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱠᱷᱨᱤᱥᱴᱤᱭᱚ ᱜᱮᱞ ᱵᱟᱨ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱦᱟ.ᱵᱤᱪ ᱯᱟᱞ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱞᱮᱫᱟ। ᱚᱱᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱱᱚᱢ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱵᱷᱟᱹᱨ ᱥᱮᱱ ᱨᱟᱡᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱪᱟᱞᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ।[᱓] ᱯᱟᱞ ᱡᱩᱜ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱳ.ᱭᱫᱷᱚ ᱫᱷᱚᱨᱢᱚ ᱵᱤᱥᱮᱥᱠᱟᱭᱛᱨᱮ,ᱵᱤᱥᱮᱥ ᱠᱟᱭᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱟᱨᱟᱵᱩᱨᱩ ᱞᱮᱱᱟ[᱑᱔] ᱠᱷᱨᱤᱥᱴᱤᱭᱚ ᱮᱭᱟᱭ ᱥᱟᱭ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟᱛᱮ ᱪᱤᱱ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱥᱟᱸᱜᱷᱟᱲᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱦᱤᱭᱮᱱ ᱥᱟᱝ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱸᱜᱷᱟᱲ ᱚᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱤᱪᱷᱩ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱵᱟᱠᱷᱨᱟ ᱚᱞ ᱟᱠᱟᱫᱟᱭ।[᱖][᱑᱓]

ᱱᱟᱦᱟᱜ ᱡᱩᱜ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

᱑᱗᱘᱗ ᱥᱟᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱨᱤᱴᱤᱥ ᱤᱥᱴ ᱤᱱᱰᱤᱭᱟ ᱠᱚᱢᱯᱟᱹᱱᱤ ᱟᱜ ᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱧᱩᱛᱩᱢ ᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱯᱨᱟᱥᱟᱥᱚᱱᱤᱠ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱱᱟᱢ ᱦᱩᱭᱮᱱᱟ । ᱚᱱᱟ ᱢᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱩᱨᱥᱤᱫᱟᱵᱟᱫᱽ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱚᱝᱥᱚ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ। ᱑᱗᱘᱗ ᱥᱟᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱟᱞᱮᱜᱮ ᱛᱮᱭᱟᱨ ᱞᱮᱱ "District Beerbhoom" ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱱᱟᱦᱟᱜ ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱟᱭᱢᱟ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱝ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ। ᱑᱗᱙᱓ ᱥᱟᱞ ᱦᱟ.ᱵᱤᱪ "Bishenpore" (ᱱᱟᱦᱟᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱤᱥᱱᱩᱯᱩᱨ, ᱵᱟᱺᱠᱩᱲᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ) ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ। ᱑᱘᱕᱗ ᱥᱟᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱚᱦᱟᱵᱤᱫᱨᱳᱦᱚ/ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱞᱟ.ᱲᱦᱟ.ᱭ ᱞᱟᱦᱟ ᱦᱟ.ᱵᱤᱪ ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲ ᱯᱚᱨᱜᱚᱱᱟ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱮᱞᱮᱫ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ। ᱢᱮᱱ ᱫᱚ,ᱩᱱ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱯᱟᱪᱷᱮ ᱥᱮ ᱯᱩᱪᱪᱷᱤᱢ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱯᱟᱥᱱᱟᱣ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱫᱮᱣᱜᱷᱚᱨ ᱦᱟ.ᱵᱤᱪ। ᱑᱘᱕᱕ᱼ᱕᱖ ᱥᱟᱞ ᱨᱮ ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱯᱟᱪᱷᱮ ᱱᱟᱠᱷᱟ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱛᱮᱭᱟᱨ ᱞᱮᱱ ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲ ᱦᱩᱞ ᱦᱚᱛᱮᱪᱛᱮ ᱟ.ᱫᱤᱵᱟ.ᱥᱤ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱴᱚᱴᱷᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱟᱫ ᱞᱟ.ᱠᱛᱤ ᱛᱟᱸᱦᱮ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ। ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱦᱩᱞ ᱟᱴᱽᱠᱟᱣ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱥᱟᱦᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱱᱚᱣᱟ ᱦᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱟᱹᱴᱤᱧ ᱠᱟᱫᱟ । ᱛᱤᱦᱤᱧ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱵᱤᱨᱵᱷᱩᱢ ᱨᱮ ᱦᱩᱞ ᱨᱮᱱ ᱟᱹᱭᱩᱨ ᱠᱤᱱ ᱵᱤᱨ ᱥᱤᱫᱷᱩ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱟᱱᱦᱩ ᱛᱟᱹᱠᱤᱱ ᱢᱟᱹᱱ ᱟᱛᱮᱜ ᱠᱚ ᱩᱭᱦᱟᱹᱨ ᱠᱤᱱᱟᱹ।[᱓][᱖]

ᱵᱟᱦᱚᱨᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱭᱟᱹᱛ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

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  3. ᱓.᱐ ᱓.᱑ ᱓.᱒ ᱓.᱓ ᱓.᱔ ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named admin
  4. ᱔.᱐ ᱔.᱑ ᱔.᱒ Mondal, Dipanwita, Ek Najare Birbhum Jela, Paschim Banga, Birbhum Special issue (in Bengali),February 2006, pp. 7–10
  5. ᱕.᱐ ᱕.᱑ ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named gazeteer1
  6. ᱖.᱐ ᱖.᱑ ᱖.᱒ ᱖.᱓ O'Malley, pp. 10-31,
  7. Selim, Mohammad, Irrigation Projects in Birbhum District,Paschim Banga, February 2006, (in Bengali), Birbhum special issue, pp. 168–169
  8. Choudhuri, Tapan, Unnayaner Aloke Birbhum, Paschim Banga, Birbhum Special Issue, pp. 59–74
  9. Amalananda Ghosh (1990). An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology: Volume 1: Subjects. Volume 2: A Gazetteer of Explored and Excavated Sites in India. BRILL. p. 237. ISBN 90-04-09264-1. 
  10. "Prehistoric tools unearthed in Bengal". Stone Pages Archaeo News. 24 ᱰᱤᱥᱮᱢᱵᱚᱨ 2005. Retrieved 4 ᱡᱩᱱ 2009. 
  11. Ray, Nihar Ranajan, Bangalir Itihas - Adi parva, (Bengali), p. 152, Paschim Banga Nirakharata Durikaran Samiti
  12. Ray, Nihar Ranajan, p.283
  13. ᱑᱓.᱐ ᱑᱓.᱑ Bangla O Bangalir Bibartan, (An Ethno-Cultural History of Bengal) by Dr. Atul Sur, (Published by Sahityalok, Kolkata, 1986, 1994)
  14. Ghosh, Binoy, Paschim Banger Sanskriti, 1976 edition, Vol I, p. 287, Prakash Bhawan