ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ

ᱣᱤᱠᱤᱯᱤᱰᱤᱭᱟ, ᱨᱟᱲᱟ ᱜᱮᱭᱟᱱ ᱯᱩᱛᱷᱤ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ
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ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ 🜨
The Earth seen from Apollo 17.jpg
Orbital characteristics
Epoch J2000[n ᱑]
Aphelion 152100000 km[n ᱒]
(94500000 mi; 1.017 AU)
Perihelion 147095000 km[n ᱒]
(91401000 mi; 0.98327 AU)
149598023 km[᱑]
(92955902 mi; 1.00000102 AU)
Eccentricity 0.0167086[᱑]
365.256363004 d[᱒]
(1.00001742096 yr)
29.78 km/s[᱓]
(107200 km/h; 66600 mph)
358.617°
Inclination
−11.26064°[᱓] to J2000 ecliptic
114.20783°[᱓]
Satellites
Physical characteristics
Mean radius
6371.0 km (3958.8 mi)[᱖]
Equatorial radius
6378.1 km (3963.2 mi)[᱗][᱘]
Polar radius
6356.8 km (3949.9 mi)[᱙]
Flattening 0.0033528[᱑᱐]
1/298.257222101 (ETRS89)
Circumference
  • 510072000 km2 (196940000 sq mi)[᱑᱓][᱑᱔][n ᱔]
  • 148940000 km2 land (57510000 sq mi; 29.2%)
  • 361132000 km2 water (139434000 sq mi; 70.8%)
Volume 1.08321×1012 km3 (2.59876×1011 cu mi)[᱓]
Mass 5.97237×1024 kg (1.31668×1025 lb)[᱑᱕]
(3.0×10−6 M)
Mean density
5.514 g/cm3 (0.1992 lb/cu in)[᱓]
9.807 m/s2 (g; 32.18 ft/s2)[᱑᱖]
0.3307[᱑᱗]
11.186 km/s[᱓]
(40270 km/h; 25020 mph)
0.99726968 d[᱑᱘]
(23h 56m 4.100s)
Equatorial rotation velocity
0.4651 km/s[᱑᱙]
(1674.4 km/h; 1040.4 mph)
23.4392811°[᱒]
Albedo
Surface temp. min mean max
Kelvin 184 K[᱒᱐] 288 K[᱒᱑] 330 K[᱒᱒]
Celsius −89.2 °C 14.9 °C 56.9 °C
Fahrenheit −128.5 °F 58.7 °F 134.3 °F
Atmosphere
Surface pressure
101.325 kPa (at MSL)
Composition by volume

ᱥᱟᱺᱜᱤᱧ ᱦᱤᱥᱟᱹᱵᱽ ᱛᱮᱫᱚ ᱟᱵᱚ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱟᱜ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱫᱚ ᱛᱮᱥᱟᱨ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱨᱮ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱮᱸᱜᱮᱞ (planet) ᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱩᱞᱟᱹᱭ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱮᱛᱚᱢ ᱟᱨ ᱠᱚᱧᱮ ᱯᱟᱦᱴᱟ ᱱᱟᱥᱮ ᱪᱚᱯᱚᱫ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱜᱩᱞᱟᱹᱭ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱵᱚ ᱜᱚᱴᱟᱯᱟᱲᱟ ᱥᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱜᱮᱵᱚᱱ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱧᱟᱢᱟ ᱾ ᱪᱮᱫᱟᱜ ᱥᱮ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱜᱮ ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱟᱵᱚ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱠᱟᱹᱡ ᱚᱝᱜᱚᱥ ᱵᱚᱱ ᱧᱮᱞ ᱧᱟᱢᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱪᱮ ᱚᱛ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱛᱤᱱᱟᱹᱜ ᱵᱷᱟᱜᱽ ᱟᱵᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱫᱷᱟᱣ ᱛᱮᱵᱚ ᱧᱮᱞᱟ, ᱚᱱᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱥᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱜᱮᱵᱚ ᱧᱮᱞᱟ ᱾

ᱪᱤᱱᱦᱟᱹ: 🜨

ᱥᱮᱫᱟᱭ ᱦᱟᱯᱲᱟᱢ ᱠᱚᱫᱚ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱥᱚᱢᱟᱱ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤ ᱞᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱜᱟᱱ ᱥᱟᱬᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱠᱚ ᱫᱟᱹᱭᱠᱟᱹ ᱮᱢ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱩᱞᱟᱹᱭ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱠᱚ ᱞᱟᱹᱭ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱥᱟᱬᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱠᱚ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱯᱷᱚᱴᱚ ᱠᱮᱫ ᱛᱮ ᱥᱟᱹᱠᱷᱤ ᱠᱚ ᱮᱢ ᱠᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱡᱮ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱩᱞᱟᱹᱭ ᱜᱮᱭᱟ ᱾

ᱱᱤᱛ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱡ ᱡᱟᱦᱟᱸ ᱵᱟᱰᱟᱭ ᱟᱠᱟᱱᱟ, ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱩᱢᱩᱝ ᱜᱮ ᱢᱟᱹᱱᱢᱤ, ᱡᱟᱱᱣᱟ, ᱡᱤᱵᱽ ᱡᱤᱭᱟᱹᱞᱤ, ᱫᱟᱨᱮ ᱱᱟᱺᱬᱤ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱚᱣᱟᱝᱨᱮ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱴᱷᱟᱶ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱥᱤᱨᱡᱚᱱ ᱤᱫᱤ ᱠᱟᱛᱮ ᱥᱟᱬᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱠᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱ ᱢᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱠᱚ ᱮᱢ ᱟᱠᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱮᱢᱚᱱ ᱡᱚᱨᱢᱟᱱ ᱥᱟᱬᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱠᱮᱸᱴ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱷᱨᱟᱱᱥ ᱥᱟᱬᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱞᱟᱯᱞᱟᱥ ᱛᱤᱠᱤᱱᱟᱜ ᱢᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱚᱶᱟᱝᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱹᱝ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱡᱩᱞᱩᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ ᱡᱤᱱᱤᱥ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱢᱟᱨᱟᱝ ᱟᱨ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱡᱩᱨ ᱛᱮ ᱟᱹᱪᱩᱨᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸᱱ ᱾ ᱟᱹᱰᱤ ᱥᱮᱨᱢᱟ ᱟᱹᱪᱩᱨ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱟᱦᱨᱮ ᱯᱟᱦᱴᱟ ᱵᱟᱹᱭ-ᱵᱟᱹᱭ ᱛᱮ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱲ ᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱚᱸᱰᱮ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱵᱷᱮᱜᱟᱨ ᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱵᱤᱫᱟᱹᱞ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ ᱚᱝᱜᱚᱥ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱢᱟᱺᱫᱽ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱹᱝ ᱾

ᱟᱨ ᱟᱫᱷᱟᱱ ᱥᱟᱬᱮᱥᱤᱭᱟᱹ ᱠᱚᱣᱟᱜ ᱢᱚᱱᱚᱛ ᱛᱮ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱚᱣᱟᱝᱨᱮ ᱵᱟᱨᱭᱟ ᱠᱮᱴᱮᱡ ᱡᱩᱞᱩᱜ ᱰᱷᱤᱯ ᱛᱟᱦᱮᱸ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱠᱟ ᱚᱱᱠᱟ ᱛᱮ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱹᱝ ᱫᱚ ᱯᱚᱥᱟᱜ ᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱠᱷᱟᱺᱰᱤᱡ ᱪᱟᱵᱟ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱨ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱴᱩᱠᱨᱟᱹ ᱠᱚ ᱦᱟᱱᱟ ᱢᱟᱬᱟᱝ ᱟᱜ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱟᱹᱪᱩᱨ ᱮᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱵᱤᱫᱟᱹᱞ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱲ ᱮᱱᱛᱮ ᱢᱤ-ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱹᱝ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱮᱱᱟᱣ ᱮᱱᱟ, ᱟᱵᱚ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱠᱚ ᱢᱟᱺᱫᱽᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱹᱝ ᱾

ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱞᱟᱲᱟᱣᱱᱟ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱛᱤᱸᱜᱩ ᱛᱷᱤᱨ ᱟᱠᱟᱱ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱵᱚᱱ ᱟᱹᱭᱠᱟᱹᱣᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱞᱮᱛᱟᱲ ᱞᱟᱲᱟᱣ ᱟᱠᱟ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟ ᱞᱟᱲᱟᱣᱱᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱟᱨ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱫᱚ ᱜᱩᱞᱟᱹᱭᱟᱪᱩᱨ (rotation) ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱫᱚ ᱵᱮᱲᱦᱟᱭᱟᱪᱩᱨ (revolution)᱾

ᱜᱩᱞᱟᱹᱭᱟᱹᱪᱩᱨ (rotation)[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱡᱟᱣ ᱜᱮ ᱥᱤᱧ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱧᱤᱸᱫᱟᱹ ᱟᱨ ᱧᱤᱸᱫᱟᱹ ᱛᱟᱭᱚᱢ ᱥᱤᱧ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱫᱤᱱᱟᱹᱢ ᱜᱮ ᱥᱟᱢᱟᱝ ᱥᱮᱦᱮᱫ ᱨᱮ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚᱭ ᱨᱟᱠᱟᱵᱼᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱟᱪᱮ ᱥᱮᱦᱮᱫ ᱨᱮᱭ ᱦᱟᱺᱥᱩᱨᱚᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱜᱩᱞᱟᱹᱪᱩᱨ (rotation) ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱱᱚᱝᱠᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱦᱩᱭᱩᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱢᱮᱱᱠᱷᱟᱱ ᱟᱵᱚ ᱵᱚ ᱵᱷᱟᱹᱵᱤᱭᱟ ᱡᱮ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱛᱤᱸᱜᱩ ᱛᱷᱤᱨ ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱟᱨ ᱥᱤᱧ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱜᱮᱭ ᱟᱹᱪᱩᱨᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱢᱤᱫᱴᱟᱹᱝ ᱯᱟᱹᱴᱨᱤ (axis) ᱢᱮᱱᱟᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱮᱢᱚᱱ ᱞᱩᱴᱷᱩ ᱟᱹᱪᱩᱨᱚᱜᱼᱟ ᱚᱱᱠᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱦᱚᱸ ᱞᱩᱴᱷᱩ ᱞᱮᱠᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱟᱡ ᱛᱮᱜᱮ ᱟᱡ ᱴᱷᱮᱱ ᱟᱹᱪᱩᱨᱚᱜᱼᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ axis ᱫᱚ ᱦᱚᱲ ᱩᱭᱦᱟᱹᱨ ᱜᱟᱨ ᱞᱮᱠᱟᱱᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱯᱟᱹᱴᱨᱤ ᱟᱹᱪᱩᱨ ᱯᱩᱨᱟᱹᱣ ᱵᱟᱠᱷᱨᱟ ᱫᱚ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱒᱔ ᱴᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱚᱠᱛᱚᱭ ᱤᱫᱤᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱵᱚ ᱒᱔ ᱴᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱨᱮ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱥᱤᱧ ᱟᱨ ᱢᱤᱫ ᱧᱤᱸᱫᱟᱹ ᱵᱚ ᱧᱟᱢᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱜ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱜᱮ rotation ᱫᱚᱵᱚᱱ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ axis ᱨᱮᱱᱟᱜ ᱵᱮᱲᱦᱟᱭ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱦᱟᱺᱥᱩᱨ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱨᱟᱠᱟᱵ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱟᱹᱪᱩᱨᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱚᱱᱟᱛᱮ ᱟᱵᱚ ᱯᱩᱨᱩᱵᱽ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱤᱧ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱨᱟᱠᱟᱵ ᱟᱨ ᱯᱩᱪᱷᱤᱢ ᱥᱮᱫ ᱨᱮ ᱥᱤᱧ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱦᱟᱺᱥᱩᱨᱚᱜ ᱵᱚᱱ ᱧᱮᱞᱮᱜᱼᱟ ᱾

ᱵᱮᱲᱦᱟᱭᱟᱹᱪᱩᱨ (revolution)[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱟᱡᱟᱜ ᱦᱚᱨ ᱨᱮ ᱟᱹᱪᱩᱨᱚᱜ ᱛᱩᱞᱩᱡ ᱜᱮ ᱥᱤᱧ ᱪᱟᱸᱫᱚ ᱨᱮᱭᱟᱜ ᱵᱮᱲᱦᱟᱭ ᱮ ᱟᱹᱪᱩᱨᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱜᱮ ᱵᱮᱲᱦᱟᱭᱟᱹᱪᱩᱨ (revolution) ᱵᱚ ᱢᱮᱛᱟᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ ᱟᱹᱪᱩᱨᱚᱜ ᱨᱮ ᱫᱷᱟᱹᱨᱛᱤ ᱫᱚ ᱓᱖᱕ ᱢᱟᱸᱦᱟ ᱖ ᱴᱟᱲᱟᱝ ᱚᱠᱛᱚ ᱞᱟᱜᱟᱣ ᱟᱭᱟ ᱾ ᱟᱨ ᱱᱚᱶᱟ revolution ᱠᱷᱟᱹᱛᱤᱨ ᱜᱮ ᱨᱤᱛᱩ ᱠᱚ ᱵᱚᱫᱚᱞᱚᱜ ᱠᱟᱱᱟ ᱾ ᱡᱮᱢᱚᱱ ᱥᱤᱛᱤᱝ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱡᱟᱹᱯᱩᱫ ᱟᱨ ᱡᱟᱹᱯᱩᱫ ᱠᱷᱚᱱ ᱨᱟᱵᱟᱝ ᱮᱢᱟᱱ ᱾

ᱵᱟᱨᱦᱮ ᱡᱚᱱᱚᱲ[ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ | ᱯᱷᱮᱰᱟᱛ ᱥᱟᱯᱲᱟᱣ]

  1. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named epoch
  2. ᱒.᱐ ᱒.᱑ ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named apsis
  3. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named space_debris
  4. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named surfacecover
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  2. ᱒.᱐ ᱒.᱑ ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named IERS
  3. ᱓.᱐ ᱓.᱑ ᱓.᱒ ᱓.᱓ ᱓.᱔ ᱓.᱕ ᱓.᱖ ᱓.᱗ ᱓.᱘ ᱓.᱙ ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named earth_fact_sheet
  4. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Allen294
  5. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ucs
  6. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named hbcp2000
  7. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named usno
  8. ᱘.᱐ ᱘.᱑ World Geodetic System (WGS-84). Available online from National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.
  9. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named cazenave_ahrens1995
  10. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named IERS2004
  11. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named WGS-84-2
  12. Earth's circumference is almost exactly 40,000 km because the metre was calibrated on this measurement—more specifically, 1/10-millionth of the distance between the poles and the equator.
  13. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Pidwirny 2006_8
  14. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named cia
  15. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Luzum2011
  16. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named NIST2008
  17. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Williams1994
  18. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Allen296
  19. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Cox2000
  20. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named asu_lowest_temp
  21. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named kinver20091210
  22. ᱛᱩᱢᱟᱹᱞ ᱦᱩᱲᱟᱹᱜ:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named asu_highest_temp
  23. "Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: Recent Global CO
    2
    Trend"
    . Earth System Research Laboratory. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 26 ᱡᱩᱞᱟᱭ 2018. Archived from the original on 26 ᱡᱩᱞᱟᱭ 2018.